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What is CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION? What does CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION mean?
 
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What is CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION? What does CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION mean? CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION meaning - CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION definition - CROSS-BORDER INJUNCTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In European Union law, and especially in European intellectual property law, a cross-border injunction is an injunction by a court in one European country, such as for example a court in the Netherlands forbidding infringement in several other European countries. The Brussels Regime instruments are a set of similar legal instruments, based on which jurisdiction (and recognition) is determined. The instruments are the Brussels I Regulations (44/2001 and 1215/2012), Lugano Conventions (1998, 2007) and the Brussels Convention (1968). The conventions together cover the European Union, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Aruba and all French territories. A legal basis for cross-border injunctions may amongst others be found in Article 6(1) (most instruments) or Article 8(1) (EU regulation 1215/2012), providing that "a person domiciled in a Member State to also be sued where he is one of a number of defendants, in the courts for the place where any one of them is domiciled, provided the claims are so closely connected that it is expedient to hear and determine them together to avoid the risk of irreconcilable judgments resulting from separate proceedings". For a period in the late-1990s, national courts issued cross-border injunctions covering all Brussels regime jurisdictions, but this has been limited by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). In two cases in July 2006, interpreting Articles 6(1) and 16(4) of the Brussels Convention, the ECJ held that European patents are national rights that must be enforced nationally, that it was "unavoidable" that infringements of the same European patent have to be litigated in each relevant national court, even if the lawsuit is against the same group of companies, and that cross-border injunctions are not available. In particular, the court set forth in grounds 41 of case C-539/03 that "Article 6(1) of the Brussels Convention ... does not apply in European patent infringement proceedings involving a number of companies established in various Contracting States in respect of acts committed in one or more of those States even where those companies, which belong to the same group, may have acted in an identical or similar manner in accordance with a common policy elaborated by one of them". In other words, there will be no close connection between claims as required by Article 6.1 if two closely connected companies domiciled in different Contracting States act (infringe) in the same manner. Also in 2006, the ECJ decided on case C-04/03 (GAT/LUK). The court ruled that "Article 16(4) of the Convention … is to be interpreted as meaning that the rule of exclusive jurisdiction laid down therein concerns all proceedings relating to the registration or validity of a patent, irrespective of whether the issue is raised by way of an action or a plea in objection". As of 2015, Article 16(4) of the Convention corresponds to Article 24(4) of EU regulation 1215/2012. The ruling in case C-04/03 confirms that the courts of each Contracting State have exclusive jurisdiction on validity of patents registered for the territory of that State. Exclusive jurisdiction under Article 22(4) applies irrespective of whether a patent proprietor is sued for revocation or whether an alleged infringer asserts invalidity in inter partes proceedings. In 2012, nearly six years after its rulings on cases C-04/03 and C-539/03, the ECJ decided on case C-616/10 (Solvay/Honeywell). The court held that "Article 22(4) of Regulation No 44/2001 must be interpreted as not precluding, in circumstances such as those at issue in the main proceedings, the application of Article 31 of that regulation". Since Article 31 is about provisional measures, a court may issue a cross-border injunction where an action aims for such measures. The ruling on case C-539/03 allows for a court to issue cross-border injunctions as provisional measures where companies domiciled in different Contracting States infringe in the same Contracting State.
Views: 47 The Audiopedia
AMT Futures Limited v Marzillier, Dr Meier & Dr Guntner Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH
 
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[2017] UKSC 13 UKSC 2015/0091 AMT Futures Limited (Appellant) v Marzillier, Dr Meier & Dr Guntner Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH (Respondent) On appeal from the Court of Appeal (Civil Division) (England and Wales) AMTF is a UK incorporated derivatives broker which provided brokerage services for individual investors, most of whom in this case were based in Germany and introduced to AMTF by independent introducing brokers in Germany. Some of AMTF's former clients issued proceedings in Germany against AMTF claiming damages based on German tort law in respect of losses on derivatives trades. The agreements governing the relationship between the former clients and AMTF provided for English law to apply to the dealings, and purported to bestow exclusive jurisdiction in relation to any disputes on the English court. AMTF now seeks to claim against MMGR, a German law firm which represented each of the former clients in their German proceedings, on the basis that MMGR induced the former clients to issue proceedings in breach of their contractual obligations to AMTF to bring any such claims before the English Courts and under English law. AMTF claims injunctive relief and damages in tort for inducement of breach of contract. The issue in this case was whether the English Court has jurisdiction to try this case under Regulation No 44/2001 ("Brussels I") . The Supreme Court unanimously dismisses AMTF’s appeal.
Views: 423 UKSupremeCourt
UK Supreme Court Judgments 6th November 2013 - Part 2
 
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[2013] UKSC 70 UKSC 2013/0023 In the matter of "The Alexandros T" UKSC 2013/0024 In the matter of "The Alexandros T" (No 2) UKSC 2013/0025 In the matter of "The Alexandros T" (No 3) The appeals concern issues of jurisdiction: whether the Court of Appeal was right to stay the proceedings pursuant to Article 27 of Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters ('the Regulation').
Views: 816 UKSupremeCourt
Fitting an SX-460 AVR to a Markon SC21G alternator
 
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Retro-fitting an Automatic Voltage Regulator to a 1997 diesel generator. The engine is a Lister Petter AC1 Series II and the alternator is a Markon SC21G. The set was built by Warsop Power Tools Ltd in Salfords, Redhill, Surrey. The generator came to me running perfectly but producing no useful voltage. I cleaned the slip rings, fitted new brushes and it worked fine for a while but soon burned out the field current limiting resistor. This appeared to have not been original and I believe a primitive AVR would have once been fitted. I bought a pattern AVR and this is my first test with it having wired it up temporarily.
Views: 70654 Tony Ling
Cybersecurity Silver Linings
 
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Rohit Ghai, President, RSA Technology continues to propel entire industries through digital transformations, escalating digital risk and prompting questions from the C-suite, the BOD, regulators and policy makers. In the past, these conversations were often quite technical, rarely accounting for risk. The key is risk perspective and thinking about security as a series of rational economic decisions. This is the ‘ROI of Security.’ https://www.rsaconference.com/events/ap18/agenda/sessions/6736-cybersecurity-silver-linings
Views: 408 RSA Conference
Rethinking the Government-Business Relationship: We Need Each Other More Than Ever
 
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The 2016 Bantle Symposium theme of “Rethinking the Government-Business Relationship: We Need Each Other More Than Ever” brought together three national leaders that have worked at the intersection of building the marketplace and strengthening relationships between government agencies at the federal, state, and local level and private commercial firms. When government engages and works with private, for-profit firms, nonprofits, and other governments, there are more opportunities for information exchange and coordination, cooperation, and collaboration. Government contracting and public-private partnerships are two of the most frequently used arrangements for aligning the goals of government with the expertise and experience of its private partners. Speakers: Anne Rung, Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Executive Office of the President; Stan Soloway, Founder of Celero Strategies and former CEO of the Professional Services Council; and Lloyd Blanchard, Director of Finance and Monitoring Services at IEM.
Perils For Pedestrians 226: Vienna 2
 
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http://www.pedestrians.org 0:28 -- A major shopping street in Vienna has been pedestrianized. 7:04 -- Austria has a new National Strategy to Promote Walking. 14:15 -- We meet the founder of the Austrian pedestrian organization. 22:51 -- We learn about the European Institute for Sustainable Transportation. 26:37 -- We take a look at the Wiener Riesenrad. . . . . . . . . "Perils For Pedestrians" can be seen on public access cable channels in 150 cities. Help us get it on the public access channel where you live. Produced by John Z Wetmore.
Views: 73 John Z Wetmore
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DOCUMENTALES 2018 -CEREBROS EN PELIGRO - DOCUMENTALES - DOCUMENTALES NUEVOS ,DOCUMENTALES CIENCIA EL CEREBRO,CEREBROS,LA HUMANIDAD,IDOCRACIA,ESTUPIDEZ,ESTUPIDO,ESTUPIDOS,DOCUMENTALES 2018,DOCUMENTAL,DOCUMENTALES NUEVOS,DOCUMENTAL NUEVO,INTELIGENCIA,LA HUMANIDAD,HUMANIDAD,DOCUMENTALES CIENCIA,CEREBRO,CEREBRO HUMANO,EL CEREBRO HUMANO,DISCOVERY SCIENCIE,discover,discovery,discovery channel,documentales ciencia,documentales en español,documentales interesantes,documentales online,documentaries,documentary,increible,national geographic,porqué,video,CRETINO ¿Qué pasaría si la humanidad realmente estuviera cayendo en la imbecilidad, como lo imaginó la película de 2006 Idiocracia? Durante veinte años, los científicos han observado con preocupación que las capacidades intelectuales están disminuyendo a escala global. Se ha observado una disminución en el cociente intelectual en varios países occidentales. Además, hay una explosión de casos de autismo y trastornos de conducta. Los principales implicados en este problema: Los disruptores endocrinos, estas moléculas químicas que interrumpen el funcionamiento de la tiroides, esenciales para el desarrollo cerebral del feto. Presentes en pesticidas, cosméticos, espumas de sofá o plásticos, estas partículas han invadido nuestra vida cotidiana: nos bañamos en una verdadera sopa química. En los Estados Unidos, cada bebé nace con más de cien moléculas químicas en la sangre. Pero, ¿cómo limitar sus efectos? ¿Qué soluciones se pueden implementar para preservar los cerebros de las generaciones futuras? Ocho años después de estudiar a varones en situación de riesgo, se revela el impacto de los disruptores endocrinos sobre la fertilidad, Sylvie Gilman y Thierry de Lestrade toman de nuevo la alarma al revelar el impacto negativo de estos contaminantes en nuestra inteligencia y la salud mental y cuenta con la participación de investigadores como Barbara Demeneix, la especialista en tiroides y bioquímica estadounidense Arlene Bloom, que lleva desde los años 1970 una feroz batalla contra el uso de retardantes de llama (mezclas químicas añadidas a una amplia variedad productos industriales tales como plásticos, textiles y equipos eléctricos o electrónicos para hacerlos menos inflamables). Sus estudios y otros nos alertan sobre un problema de salud pública que legisladores, bajo la influencia de los lobbies industriales, están dejando de lado. 👅 SUSCRÍBETE https://goo.gl/PpDqDx A DOCUMENTARIES👍 😜 👆 👍 DALE PULGAR HACIA ARRIBA SI TE GUSTO EL DOCUMENTAL 👍ツ 🗣 DEJEN SUS COMENTARIOS BEST DOCUMENTARIES 💭 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "BATALLAS EPICAS DE LA HISTORIA,MIOSÉS,DOCUMENTALES GUERRA,DOCUMENTALES DOCUMENTAL,BIBLIA DOCUMENTAL" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtzkQ0H-tJU -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Richard Martin: "SUPERFUEL: Thorium, The Green Energy Source for the Future" | Talks at Google
 
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Richard Martin was the first to write about thorium in the mainstream press. His feature story in Wired catalyzed the thorium power movement. An award-winning journalist whose work has appeared in Time, Fortune, The Atlantic, and The Best Science Writing, Martin is the editorial director of Pike Research, a leading clean-energy firm. He lives in Boulder, Colorado with his wife and son. Abstract: In this groundbreaking account of an energy revolution in the making, Martin introduces us to thorium, a radioactive element and alternative nuclear fuel that is far safer, cleaner, and more abundant than its more volatile sister, uranium. As we grapple with the consequences of nuclear energy disasters such as last spring's meltdown at Fukushima and the proliferation of atomic weapons, not to mention our problematic dependence on Middle Eastern oil, thorium is reemerging as an overlooked energy source. Martin thoroughly articulates the world's past and present development of thorium as an energy source, and he details its benefits as an element that can wean us off our fossil-fuel addiction while averting the risk of a nuclear meltdown. "Richard Martin tells a story that needs to be understood for our future energy supplies rely upon hard choices. Martin makes at least one of those difficult decisions ever so much easier by educating us on our troubled history and experience with nuclear energy, and even more importantly for the future development of this essential source of 21st century clean energy. This is the type of book that can make a difference!" --John Hofmeister, author of Why We Hate the Oil Companies "Bringing back to light a long-lost technology that should never have been lost, this fascinating, important biography of thorium also brings us a commodity that's rare in discussions of energy and climate change: hope. "-- Chris Anderson, editor in chief of Wired "Thorium is the younger sister to uranium, less volatile, slower to self-consume, and as many have contended without success, much better suited as a source of nuclear power than uranium. Superfuel by award-winning science writer Richard Martin tells the Cinderella story of thorium in a fast-paced, insider's account. This short, well-written book is a must read for those interested in understanding thorium's past and its potential to be a clean, renewable energy source for the future."-- Cynthia Kelly, President Atomic Heritage Foundation. This talk was hosted by Boris Debic.
Views: 10208 Talks at Google
Ambassador Sverre Stub's Speech
 
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This is Norwegian Ambassador, and former ABAC student, Sverre Stub's full speech to ABAC students. He explains several world issues and how students can get involved i international politics.
Views: 151 Stallion TV
Starr Forum: Brexit, Europe, and Trump
 
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April 6, 2017 - 4:30pm to 6:00pm Speaker: Jack Straw, Former British Foreign Secretary John Whitaker "Jack" Straw is an English politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackburn from 1979 to 2015. Straw served in the Cabinet from 1997 to 2010 under the governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. He held two of the traditional Great Offices of State, as Home Secretary from 1997 to 2001 and Foreign Secretary from 2001 to 2006 under Blair. From 2007 to 2010 he served as Lord Chancellor and the Secretary of State for Justice throughout Brown's Premiership. Straw is one of only three individuals to have served in Cabinet continuously under the Labour government from 1997 to 2010.
Executive Committee - November 28, 2017 - Part 2 of 2
 
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Executive Committee, meeting 29, November 28, 2017 - Part 2 of 2 Agenda and background materials: http://app.toronto.ca/tmmis/decisionBodyProfile.do?function=doPrepare&meetingId=11834 Part 1 of 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3Wv6MTNLm0#t=5m37s Meeting Navigation: 0:09:04 - Meeting resume 2:44:09 - Public session
Views: 1635 Toronto City Council
JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES: The Economic Consequences of the Peace FULL Audiobook
 
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JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES: The Economic Consequences of the Peace FULL Audiobook - The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) is a book written and published by John Maynard Keynes. Keynes attended the Versailles Conference as a delegate of the British Treasury and argued for a much more generous peace. It was a bestseller throughout the world and was critical in establishing a general opinion that the Versailles Treaty was a "Carthaginian peace". It helped to consolidate American public opinion against the treaty and involvement in the League of Nations. The perception by much of the British public that Germany had been treated unfairly in turn was a crucial factor in public support for appeasement. The success of the book established Keynes' reputation as a leading economist especially on the left. When Keynes was a key player in establishing the Bretton Woods system in 1944, he remembered the lessons from Versailles as well as the Great Depression. The Marshall Plan after Second World War is a similar system to that proposed by Keynes in The Economic Consequences of the Peace. The book was released in late 1919 and became an immediate bestseller on both sides of the Atlantic: it was released in the US in 1920. The scathing sketches of Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau proved to be very popular and the work established Keynes' reputation with the public as a leading economist. In six months, the book had sold 100,000 copies with translations into 12 languages. It restored Keynes' reputation with the Bloomsbury Group which had been tarnished by his work for the treasury during the war. Keynes returned to Cambridge to work as an economist where he was regarded as the leading student of Alfred Marshall.(summary adapted from wikipedia.org - Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Economic_Consequences_of_the_Peace&action=history) - SUBSCRIBE to Greatest Audio Books: http://www.youtube.com/GreatestAudioBooks - Become a FRIEND: Facebook: http://www.Facebook.com/GreatestAudioBooks Google+: - READ along by clicking (CC) for Closed Caption Transcript! - LISTEN to the entire audiobook for free! Chapter listing and length: 01 - Chapter 1 Preface and Introductory -- 00:07:49 02 - Chapter 2 Europe Before the War -- 00:22:01 03 - Chapter 3 The Conference -- 00:36:08 04 - Chapter 4A The Treaty -- 00:31:06 05 - Chapter 4B The Treaty -- 00:30:57 06 - Chapter 5A Reparations -- 00:24:17 07 - Chapter 5B Reparations -- 00:38:59 08 - Chapter 5C Reparations -- 00:43:19 09 - Chapter 5D Reparations -- 00:21:03 10 - Chapter 6 Europe After the Treaty -- 00:30:31 11 - Chapter 7 Remedies -- 00:35:51 12 - Chapter 7B Remedies -- 00:19:17 Total running time: 5:41:18 Read by Graham McMillan In addition to the reader, this audio book was produced by: Meta-Coordinator/Cataloging: MaryAnn This is a Librivox recording. All Librivox recordings are in the public domain. For more information or to volunteer visit librivox.org. This video: Copyright 2013. Greatest Audio Books. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 15680 Greatest AudioBooks
Does GDPR Apply to You? | PrivacyNews.TV
 
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In this edition of PrivacyNews.TV from March 13, 2018, The Furture of Privacy Forum's Jules Polonetsky clarifies who will be impacted by the EU's GDPR. GDPR's website: https://www.eugdpr.org/ Enjoy videos like this? Like this video and subscribe for more informative videos relating to cyber privacy. _________________________________________________________________ PrivacyNews.TV is a series established and run by the Future of Privacy Forum. The Future of Privacy Forum is a non-profit organization that serves as a catalyst for privacy leadership and scholarship, advancing principled data practices in support of emerging technologies. FPF brings together industry, academics, consumer advocates, and other thought leaders to explore the challenges posed by technological innovation and develop privacy protections, ethical norms and workable business practices. Like FPF on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FutureofPrivacy/ Follow FPF on Twitter: https://twitter.com/futureofprivacy?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor
Views: 41 FutureofPrivacy
Kashmir conflict | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Kashmir conflict 00:05:10 1 India–Pakistan conflict 00:05:20 1.1 Early history 00:07:19 1.2 Partition and invasion 00:11:26 1.3 Accession 00:14:51 1.4 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 00:18:01 1.5 UN mediation 00:22:22 1.6 Dixon Plan 00:24:32 1.7 1950 military standoff 00:28:08 1.8 Nehru's plebiscite offer 00:30:10 1.9 Sino-Indian War 00:30:54 1.10 Operation Gibraltar and 1965 Indo-Pakistani war 00:33:24 1.11 1971 Indo-Pakistani war and Simla Agreement 00:36:09 2 Internal conflict 00:36:18 2.1 Political movements during the Dogra rule 00:40:06 2.2 Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir 00:40:16 2.2.1 Autonomy and plebiscite conundrum (1947–1953) 00:46:11 2.2.2 Period of integration and rise of Kashmiri nationalism (1954–1974) 00:52:21 2.2.3 Revival of National Conference (1975–1983) 00:56:36 2.2.4 Rise of the separatist movement and Islamism (1984–1986) 01:01:33 3 Post-1987 insurgency in Indian administered Kashmir 01:01:46 3.1 1987 state elections 01:03:29 3.2 1989 popular insurgency and militancy 01:08:55 3.3 1999 Conflict in Kargil 01:10:22 3.4 2000s Al-Qaeda involvement 01:13:41 4 Reasons behind the dispute 01:16:17 4.1 Indian view 01:22:38 4.2 Pakistani view 01:27:32 4.3 Chinese view 01:28:09 4.4 Kashmiri views 01:32:56 5 Cross-border troubles 01:34:06 6 Pakistan's relation with militants 01:37:58 7 Water dispute 01:40:26 8 Human rights abuses 01:40:36 8.1 Indian administered Kashmir 01:57:30 8.2 Pakistan administered Kashmir 01:57:40 8.2.1 Azad Kashmir 02:02:15 8.2.2 Gilgit-Baltistan 02:05:28 9 Map issues 02:06:37 10 Recent developments 02:11:29 10.1 Efforts to end the crisis 02:13:52 10.2 2008 militant attacks 02:15:26 10.3 2008 Kashmir protests 02:17:14 10.4 2008 Kashmir elections 02:18:12 10.5 2009 Kashmir protests 02:18:50 10.6 2010 Kashmir Unrest 02:20:04 10.7 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Elections 02:21:20 10.8 October 2014 02:22:08 10.9 July 2016 02:22:55 10.10 September 2016 02:24:08 11 United States positions on the Kashmir conflict 02:27:52 12 Issues surrounding plebiscite 02:28:02 12.1 UN Resolution 02:30:36 12.2 Instrument of Accession 02:33:11 12.3 Article 370 02:35:57 12.4 "Nehru's Promise" 02:40:22 12.5 Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir 02:41:48 12.6 Outlook Survey 02:42:38 12.7 Private Survey 02:45:30 13 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947. China has at times played a minor role. India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947 and 1965, as well as the Kargil War of 1999. The two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier. India claims the entire princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, and, as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of the region. It controls Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which administers approximately 37% of the region, namely Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China currently administers the remaining 20% mostly uninhabited areas, the Shaksgam Valley, and the Aksai Chin region. The present conflict is in Kashmir Valley. The root of conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government is tied to a dispute over local autonomy and based on the demand for self-determination. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s, and by 1988, many of the democratic reforms introduced by the Indian Government had been reversed. Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India. In 1987, a disputed state election created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups. In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian ...
Views: 69 Subhajit Sahu
Madrid | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Madrid 00:03:20 1 Etymology 00:05:35 2 History 00:05:44 2.1 Middle Ages 00:08:00 2.2 Modern Age 00:12:18 2.3 From the 19th century to present day 00:17:10 3 Geography 00:17:54 3.1 Climate 00:19:28 3.2 Water supply 00:20:07 4 Demographics 00:21:07 4.1 Immigration 00:23:12 4.2 Religion 00:23:36 5 Government 00:25:07 5.1 Districts 00:28:00 6 Metropolitan area 00:29:17 7 Cityscape 00:29:25 7.1 Architecture 00:34:00 7.2 Urban sculpture 00:35:39 7.3 Environment 00:44:15 8 Economy 00:45:08 8.1 Economic history 00:46:15 8.2 Present-day economy 00:48:26 8.2.1 Standard of living 00:49:29 8.2.2 Employment 00:50:37 8.2.3 Services 00:52:31 8.2.4 Industry 00:53:36 8.2.5 Construction 00:54:16 8.2.6 International rankings 00:55:02 8.3 Media 00:56:28 9 Art and culture 00:56:38 9.1 Museums and art centres 01:09:04 9.2 Landmarks 01:10:41 9.3 Churches 01:16:31 9.4 Literature 01:19:40 9.5 Nightlife 01:21:03 9.6 Bohemian culture 01:22:17 9.7 Classical music and opera 01:23:36 9.8 Local festivities 01:24:29 9.9 Bullfighting 01:25:15 9.10 LGBTQ culture 01:26:41 10 Sport 01:26:50 10.1 Events 01:27:40 10.2 Football 01:29:14 10.3 Basketball 01:30:00 10.4 Sport clubs 01:30:09 11 Education 01:30:29 11.1 Universities 01:37:12 11.2 Business schools 01:38:30 12 Transport 01:38:58 12.1 Roads 01:40:48 12.2 Local transport 01:42:33 12.3 Long-distance transport 01:44:10 13 International relations 01:44:20 13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 01:44:33 13.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities 01:44:53 13.3 Other partnerships 01:45:02 14 Notable people 01:45:11 15 Honours 01:45:27 16 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Madrid (, Spanish: [maˈðɾið]) is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.2 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), smaller than only London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid. The Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to two world-famous football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index.Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), belonging to the United Nations Organization (UN), the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), and the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). It also hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu BBVA). Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI a ...
Views: 44 wikipedia tts
Foreign relations of India | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Foreign relations of India Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Ministry of External Affairs of India (MEA), also known as the Foreign Ministry, is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of India. With the world's fifth largest military expenditure, second largest armed force, sixth largest economy by nominal rates and third largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity, India is a regional power, a nascent global power and a potential superpower. India has a growing international influence and a prominent voice in global affairs. India is a newly industrialised country, has a history of collaboration with several countries, is a component of the BRICS and a major part of developing world. India was one of the founding members of several international organisations—the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank, New Development BRICS Bank, and G-20—and the founder of the Non-Aligned Movement. India has also played an important and influential role in other international organisations like East Asia Summit, World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund (IMF), G8+5 and IBSA Dialogue Forum. India is also a member of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Regionally, India is a part of SAARC and BIMSTEC. India has taken part in several UN peacekeeping missions and in 2007, it was the second-largest troop contributor to the United Nations. India is currently seeking a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, along with the other G4 nations.
Views: 171 wikipedia tts
Gaston County Board of Commissioners March 22, 2016
 
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Combined Work Session and Regular Meeting. For closed captioning during the live event, click https://carolinascaptioning.1capapp.com/event/gcm
Economy of the United States | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Economy of the United States 00:04:11 1 History 00:04:20 1.1 Colonial era and 18th century 00:04:49 1.2 19th century 00:06:30 1.3 20th century 00:11:32 1.4 21st century 00:14:15 2 Data 00:14:33 3 GDP 00:17:24 4 By economic sector 00:17:33 4.1 Nominal GDP sector composition 00:17:59 5 Employment 00:21:06 5.1 Unemployment 00:24:16 5.2 Employment by sector 00:24:44 6 Income and wealth 00:24:53 6.1 Income measures 00:25:58 6.2 Income inequality 00:31:58 6.3 Household net worth and wealth inequality 00:34:37 6.4 Home ownership 00:36:04 6.5 Profits and wages 00:38:49 6.6 Poverty 00:42:34 7 Health care 00:42:43 7.1 Coverage 00:45:20 7.2 Outcomes 00:47:47 7.3 Cost 00:49:27 8 Composition of economic sectors 00:52:12 9 Energy, transportation, and telecommunications 00:52:24 9.1 Transportation 00:52:32 9.1.1 Road 00:53:19 9.1.2 Rail 00:54:03 9.1.3 Airline 00:54:40 9.2 Energy 00:56:15 9.3 Telecommunications 00:56:30 10 International trade 00:58:37 11 Financial position 01:02:20 12 Currency and central bank 01:03:44 13 Law and government 01:05:01 13.1 Regulations 01:09:44 13.2 Taxation 01:11:11 13.3 Expenditure 01:12:40 13.4 Federal budget and debt 01:15:32 14 Business culture 01:17:50 15 Demographic shift 01:19:37 16 Entrepreneurship 01:21:56 17 Venture capital investment 01:24:41 18 Mergers and Acquisitions 01:25:33 19 Research and development 01:26:03 19.1 Impact of recession on research spending 01:27:43 19.2 Business spending on research 01:29:41 19.3 Research spending at the state level 01:32:11 19.4 Research spending by multinational corporations 01:33:41 19.5 Exports of high-tech goods and patents 01:35:10 20 Notable companies and markets 01:37:16 20.1 Forbes top 10 U.S. corporations by revenue 01:37:31 21 Finance 01:41:23 22 Historical statistics 01:41:33 22.1 GDP 01:41:41 22.2 Employment 01:41:50 22.3 Manufacturing 01:41:58 22.4 Wealth and Income 01:42:07 22.5 Productivity 01:42:15 22.6 Inequality 01:42:24 22.7 Health spending 01:42:32 22.8 Tariff rates 01:42:41 22.9 Trade balance 01:42:49 22.10 Inflation 01:42:58 22.11 Federal tax 01:43:06 22.12 Government spending 01:43:15 22.13 Debt 01:43:23 22.14 Deficit 01:43:31 23 List of state economies 01:43:41 24 See also 01:44:13 25 Sources Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy. It is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and the second-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It also has the world's seventh-highest per capita GDP (nominal) and the eleventh-highest per capita GDP (PPP) in 2016. The US has a highly diversified, world-leading industrial sector. It is also a high-technology innovator with the second-largest industrial output in the world. The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency, backed by its science and technology, its military, the full faith of the U.S. government to reimburse its debts, its central role in a range of international institutions since World War II, and the petrodollar system. Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others, it is the de facto currency. Its largest trading partners are China, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, South Korea, United Kingdom, France, India, and Taiwan.The nation's economy is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. It has the second-highest total-estimated value of natural resources, valued at $45 trillion in 2016. Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD nations, and in 2010, they had the fourth-highest median household income, down from second-highest in 2007. The United States has held the world's largest national economy (not including colonial empires) since at least the 1890s. It is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas. In 2016, it was the world's largest trading nation as well as its second-largest manufacturer, representing a fift ...
Views: 31 wikipedia tts
TissueScan: Gene expression Profile  in Cancer Tissues via qPCR
 
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TissueScan™ Cancer and Normal Tissue cDNA Arrays are developed for differential gene expression analysis. It validation among hundreds of different human tissues in less than two hours. Tissue cDNAs of each array are normalized first-strand cDNA from clinical tissues. Each cDNA sample is synthesized from high quality total RNAs of pathologist-verified tissues, normalized and validated with beta-actin in two sequential qPCR analyses, and provided with clinical information and QC data. Learn from this video on how to survey gene expression level of any potential biomarkers among a full-spectrum of cancer tissues in 2-hrs. For more information, please visit http://www.origene.com/qPCR/Tissue-qPCR-Arrays.aspx
Jurisdiction
 
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For an article on the use of jurisdiction to mean a state or country, see Jurisdiction (area). Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility. The term is also used to denote the geographical area or subject-matter to which such authority applies. Areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 176 Audiopedia
Common Agricultural Policy
 
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The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union. It implements a system of agricultural subsidies and other programmes. It was introduced in 1962 and has undergone several changes since then. It has been criticised on the grounds of its cost, and its environmental and humanitarian impacts. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1043 Audiopedia
Jaguar XJ220
 
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The Jaguar XJ220 is a two-seater supercar produced by British luxury car manufacturer Jaguar from 1992 until 1994, in collaboration with the specialist automotive and race engineering company Tom Walkinshaw Racing. The XJ220 held the record for the fastest production car throughout 1992 after recording a top speed of 213 mph (343 km/h), before being superseded by the McLaren F1 in 1993 when it recorded a top speed of 231 mph (372 km/h). The Jaguar held the Nürburgring production car lap record between 1992 and 2000 with a time of 7:46.36. The XJ220 was developed from a V12-engined 4-wheel drive concept car designed by an informal group of Jaguar employees working in their spare time. The group wished to create a modern version of the successful Jaguar 24 Hours of Le Mans racing cars of the 1950s and '60s that could be entered into FIA Group B competitions. The XJ220 made use of engineering work undertaken for Jaguar's then current racing car family as well as the engineering experience gained from the MG Metro 6R4 rally car, produced by former Jaguar sister company Austin Rover Group. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 107 Audiopedia
Isle of Man | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Isle of Man Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= The Isle of Man (Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), sometimes referred to simply as Mann (; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each.The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles, which included the Isle of Man. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103.In 1266, the island became part of Scotland under the Treaty of Perth, after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom. It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, Tynwald, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, but this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO.
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Wartime sexual violence | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Wartime sexual violence Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict, war, or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives. Wartime sexual violence may also include gang rape and rape with objects. It is distinguished from sexual harassment, sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service. It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power. During war and armed conflict, rape is frequently used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy. Wartime sexual violence may occur in a variety of situations, including institutionalized sexual slavery, wartime sexual violence associated with specific battles or massacres, and individual or isolated acts of sexual violence. Rape can also be recognized as genocide or ethnic cleansing when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group; however, rape remains widespread in conflict zones. There are other international legal instruments to prosecute perpetrators but this has occurred as late as the 1990s. However, these legal instruments have so far only been used for international conflicts, thus putting the burden of proof in citing the international nature of conflict in order for prosecution to proceed.
Views: 205 wikipedia tts
test
 
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test
Views: 1786 tom bohan
Margaret Thatcher | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Margaret Thatcher Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (née Roberts; 13 October 1925 – 8 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The 'Iron Lady'", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism. A research chemist at Somerville College, Oxford, before becoming a barrister, Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his Conservative government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election. Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt in the Brighton hotel bombing in 1984. Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge ("poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers, and her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom; despite the passage of time, debate over the complicated legacy of Thatcherism persists.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Moldova | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldova 00:02:49 1 Etymology 00:03:49 2 History 00:03:58 2.1 Prehistory 00:04:57 2.2 Moldovan lands in antiquity and the early Middle Ages 00:07:09 2.3 Founding of the Principality of Moldavia 00:08:17 2.4 Between Poland and Hungary 00:11:00 2.5 The Ottomans 00:13:31 2.6 Modern history 00:13:39 2.6.1 Russian Empire 00:15:42 2.6.2 Russian Revolution and Greater Romania 00:18:03 2.6.3 World War II and Soviet era 00:23:30 2.6.4 Independence 00:31:49 3 Government 00:33:56 3.1 Internal affairs 00:34:46 3.2 Foreign relations 00:38:38 3.3 Military 00:40:27 3.4 Human rights 00:42:11 3.5 Administrative divisions 00:43:18 4 Geography 00:45:26 4.1 Climate 00:46:48 5 Economy 00:54:33 5.1 Energy 00:55:32 5.2 Wine industry 00:56:15 5.3 Agriculture 00:56:43 5.4 Tourism 00:57:06 5.5 Transport 00:57:54 6 Telecommunications 00:58:53 7 Demographics 00:59:44 7.1 Cultural and ethnic composition 01:01:32 7.2 Languages 01:03:31 7.3 Religion 01:04:20 7.4 Education 01:05:39 7.5 Crime 01:06:21 7.6 Health and fertility 01:08:00 7.7 Emigration 01:08:27 8 Culture 01:11:10 8.1 Media 01:11:52 8.2 Food and beverage 01:12:27 8.3 Music 01:14:55 8.4 Holidays 01:15:23 8.5 Sports 01:16:11 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Moldova ( (listen), sometimes UK: ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became autonomous and then the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR. On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and aspires to join the European Union.
Views: 16 wikipedia tts
Moldova | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Moldova 00:02:48 1 Etymology 00:03:48 2 History 00:03:57 2.1 Prehistory 00:04:54 2.2 Moldovan lands in antiquity and the early Middle Ages 00:06:44 2.3 Founding of the Principality of Moldavia 00:07:52 2.4 Between Poland and Hungary 00:10:34 2.5 The Ottomans 00:13:04 2.6 Modern history 00:13:13 2.6.1 Russian Empire 00:15:15 2.6.2 Russian Revolution and Greater Romania 00:17:35 2.6.3 World War II and Soviet era 00:23:00 2.6.4 Independence 00:31:17 3 Government 00:33:24 3.1 Internal affairs 00:34:14 3.2 Foreign relations 00:38:05 3.3 Military 00:39:54 3.4 Human rights 00:41:37 3.5 Administrative divisions 00:42:44 4 Geography 00:44:52 4.1 Climate 00:46:13 5 Economy 00:53:56 5.1 Energy 00:54:56 5.2 Wine industry 00:55:38 5.3 Agriculture 00:56:07 5.4 Tourism 00:56:30 5.5 Transport 00:57:17 6 Telecommunications 00:58:16 7 Demographics 00:59:07 7.1 Cultural and ethnic composition 01:00:54 7.2 Languages 01:02:52 7.3 Religion 01:03:41 7.4 Education 01:05:00 7.5 Crime 01:05:42 7.6 Health and fertility 01:07:20 7.7 Emigration 01:07:47 8 Culture 01:10:29 8.1 Media 01:11:11 8.2 Food and beverage 01:11:46 8.3 Music 01:14:14 8.4 Holidays 01:14:42 8.5 Sports 01:15:30 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Moldova ( (listen), sometimes UK: ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became autonomous and then the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR. On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and aspires to join the European Union.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Labor union | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:03
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_union 00:01:50 1 Definition 00:05:10 2 History 00:07:14 2.1 National general unions 00:09:43 2.2 Legalization and expansion 00:11:12 3 Trade Union Prevalence Worldwide 00:11:40 4 Trade unions by country 00:11:50 4.1 Australia 00:14:41 4.2 Baltic states 00:15:44 4.3 Belgium 00:17:59 4.4 Canada 00:20:45 4.5 Colombia 00:21:44 4.6 Costa Rica 00:22:33 4.7 Germany 00:23:34 4.8 India 00:24:45 4.9 Japan 00:25:58 4.10 Mexico 00:28:16 4.11 Scandinavia 00:28:52 4.12 United Kingdom 00:30:12 4.13 United States 00:31:53 4.14 Vatican (Holy See) 00:34:38 5 Structure and politics 00:34:54 6 Shop types 00:39:43 7 Diversity of international unions 00:42:22 8 International unionization 00:48:00 9 Criticisms 00:49:04 10 Union publications 00:50:08 11 Film 00:51:01 12 See also 00:53:53 13 Notes and references 00:54:21 14 Further reading 00:54:30 14.1 Britain 00:54:40 14.2 United States 00:56:38 14.3 Other 00:58:02 15 External links 01:01:34 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9849710128963749 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A trade union, also called a labour union or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and also have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them legally to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries.
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Electricity sector in Peru | Wikipedia audio article
 
37:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_Peru 00:01:29 1 Electricity supply and demand 00:01:40 1.1 Installed capacity 00:04:13 1.2 Demand 00:04:49 1.3 Demand and supply projections 00:05:57 2 Access to electricity 00:06:47 3 Service quality 00:06:56 3.1 Interruption frequency and duration 00:07:26 3.2 Distribution and transmission losses 00:07:57 4 Responsibilities in the electricity sector 00:08:09 4.1 Policy and regulation 00:10:30 4.2 Generation 00:11:48 4.3 Transmission 00:12:47 4.4 Distribution 00:13:47 5 Renewable energy resources 00:14:25 5.1 Hydroelectricity 00:16:04 5.2 Wind 00:17:24 5.3 Solar 00:17:55 6 Energy efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru 00:19:03 7 History of the electricity sector 00:19:14 7.1 Early history 00:23:00 7.2 2000s developments 00:24:14 8 Tariffs and subsidies 00:24:24 8.1 Tariffs 00:25:03 8.2 Subsidies 00:26:27 9 Investment and financing 00:26:37 9.1 Investment by subsector 00:27:56 9.1.1 Investment requirements 00:28:20 9.2 Financing 00:28:29 9.2.1 Rural electrification 00:30:04 10 Summary of private participation in the electricity sector 00:31:04 11 Electricity and the environment 00:31:14 11.1 Responsibility for the environment 00:32:46 11.2 Greenhouse gas emissions 00:33:13 11.3 CDM projects in electricity 00:33:48 12 External assistance 00:33:58 12.1 Inter-American Development Bank 00:34:26 12.2 World Bank 00:35:06 13 Sources 00:35:47 14 See also 00:36:06 15 Notes 00:36:15 16 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9079632902689554 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The electricity sector in Peru has experienced impressive improvements in the past 15 years. Access to electricity has increased from 45% in 1990 to 88.8% in July 2011, while service quality and efficiency of service provision improved. These improvements were made possible through privatizations following reforms initiated in 1992. At the same time, electricity tariffs have remained in line with the average for Latin America. However, several challenges remain. Chief among them are the still very low level of access in rural areas and the untapped potential of some renewable energies, in particular wind and solar energy, due to an inadequate regulatory framework. The current electricity generation capacity is evenly divided between thermal and hydroelectric sources. A renewed recent dynamism of the electricity sector in the country is based on the shift to natural gas plants, which will be mainly fed from the production of the Camisea gas field in the Amazon Rainforest. The National Interconnected System (SEIN) serves 85% of the connected population, with several “isolated” systems covering the rest of the country. While investment in generation, transmission and distribution in urban areas is predominantly private, resources for rural electrification come solely from public sources.
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Jurisdiction | Wikipedia audio article
 
20:35
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Jurisdiction Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the United States, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado. The legal term refers only to the granted authority, not to a geographical area. Jurisdiction draws its substance from international law, conflict of laws, constitutional law, and the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government to allocate resources to best serve the needs of society.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Moldova | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:15:46
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Moldova 00:02:48 1 Etymology 00:03:48 2 History 00:03:57 2.1 Prehistory 00:04:54 2.2 Moldovan lands in antiquity and the early Middle Ages 00:06:44 2.3 Founding of the Principality of Moldavia 00:07:52 2.4 Between Poland and Hungary 00:10:34 2.5 The Ottomans 00:13:04 2.6 Modern history 00:13:13 2.6.1 Russian Empire 00:15:15 2.6.2 Russian Revolution and Greater Romania 00:17:35 2.6.3 World War II and Soviet era 00:23:00 2.6.4 Independence 00:31:17 3 Government 00:33:24 3.1 Internal affairs 00:34:14 3.2 Foreign relations 00:38:05 3.3 Military 00:39:54 3.4 Human rights 00:41:37 3.5 Administrative divisions 00:42:44 4 Geography 00:44:52 4.1 Climate 00:46:13 5 Economy 00:53:56 5.1 Energy 00:54:56 5.2 Wine industry 00:55:38 5.3 Agriculture 00:56:07 5.4 Tourism 00:56:30 5.5 Transport 00:57:17 6 Telecommunications 00:58:16 7 Demographics 00:59:07 7.1 Cultural and ethnic composition 01:00:54 7.2 Languages 01:02:52 7.3 Religion 01:03:41 7.4 Education 01:05:00 7.5 Crime 01:05:42 7.6 Health and fertility 01:07:20 7.7 Emigration 01:07:47 8 Culture 01:10:29 8.1 Media 01:11:11 8.2 Food and beverage 01:11:46 8.3 Music 01:14:14 8.4 Holidays 01:14:42 8.5 Sports 01:15:30 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Moldova ( (listen), sometimes UK: ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became autonomous and then the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR. On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and aspires to join the European Union.
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Macau | Wikipedia audio article
 
49:55
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Macau 00:01:52 1 Etymology 00:02:43 2 History 00:03:59 2.1 Portuguese Macau 00:10:29 2.2 Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status 00:11:05 3 Government and politics 00:12:04 3.1 Executive 00:13:02 3.2 Legislature 00:14:09 3.3 Judiciary 00:16:27 3.4 Military 00:18:00 3.5 International relations 00:19:24 3.6 Administrative divisions 00:19:37 4 Geography 00:21:16 4.1 Climate 00:23:07 5 Economy 00:28:07 5.1 Monetary system 00:28:22 6 Demographics 00:29:44 6.1 Language 00:29:53 6.2 Employment 00:31:04 6.3 Religion 00:32:20 7 Infrastructure 00:33:39 7.1 Education 00:34:28 7.2 Healthcare 00:34:37 7.3 Transport 00:36:48 8 Public safety and military 00:39:18 8.1 Police and law enforcement 00:42:20 8.2 Firefighting 00:42:30 8.3 Anti-corruption 00:42:39 9 Culture 00:42:48 9.1 Cuisine 00:42:56 9.2 Sports 00:46:13 10 Notable people 00:47:10 11 Sister cities 00:48:36 12 See also 00:49:21 13 References 00:49:32 13.1 Citations Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Macau or Macao ( (listen); Chinese: 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn]; Portuguese: Macau), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Along with Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and several other major cities in Guangdong, the territory forms a core part of the Pearl River Delta metropolitan region. With a population of 650,900 in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. Macau was formerly a colony of the Portuguese Empire, after Ming China leased the territory as a trading post in 1557. Originally governing under Chinese authority and sovereignty, Portugal was given perpetual occupation rights for Macau in 1887. Macau remained under Portuguese control until 1999, when it was returned to China. As a special administrative region, Macau maintains a separate political and economic system apart from mainland China. The People's Republic of China's obligation to run Macau as a special administrative region, per the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, expires on 20 December 2049. Macau is the gambling capital of the world. Its economy is heavily dependent on gambling and tourism, with the largest gambling revenue since 2006. It has a very high Human Development Index and the fourth-highest life expectancy in the world. Macau is among the world's richest regions and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity was higher than that of any country in the world. In 2015, Macau was ranked as the No.1 of the Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas in the world by Brookings Institution.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Neoliberalism | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Neoliberalism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism. Those ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society. These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980.English-speakers have used the term "neoliberalism" since the start of the 20th century with different meanings, but it became more prevalent in its current meaning in the 1970s and 1980s, used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences as well as by critics. Modern advocates of free market policies avoid the term "neoliberal" and some scholars have described the term as meaning different things to different people as neoliberalism "mutated" into geopolitically distinct hybrids as it travelled around the world. As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy.The definition and usage of the term have changed over time. As an economic philosophy, neoliberalism emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s as they attempted to trace a so-called "third" or "middle" way between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning. The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which neoliberals mostly blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term "neoliberal" tended to refer to theories which diverged from the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism and which promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy. In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" heavily declined. When the term re-appeared in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet's economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted. It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it also had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of Mont Pelerin Society economists Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman and James M. Buchanan, along with politicians and policy-makers such as Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Alan Greenspan. Once the new meaning of neoliberalism became established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused into the English-language study of political economy. By 1994, with the passage of NAFTA and with the Zapatistas' reaction to this development in Chiapas, the term entered global circulation. Scholarship on the phenomenon of neoliberalism has been growing over the last couple of decades.
Views: 5 Subhajit Sahu
Independence of Belarus | Wikipedia audio article
 
31:49
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Independence of Belarus Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The politics of Belarus takes place in a framework of a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament. The President of Belarus is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the government, at its top sits a prime minister, appointed by the President. Legislative power is de jure vested in the bicameral parliament, the National Assembly, however the president may enact decrees that are executed the same way as laws, for undisputed time. Belarus's declaration of independence on 27 July 1990, did not stem from long-held political aspirations but from reactions to domestic and foreign events. Ukraine's declaration of independence, in particular, led the leaders of then Belarusian SSR to realize that the Soviet Union was on the brink of dissolving, which it did. After the establishment of a Republic on August 25, 1991, Stanislav Shushkevich was selected to be the first Belarusian leader and held this position until 1994. During that time frame, Shushkevich directed his country in a way to become free from its Soviet past and try to look towards the West. His successor, Alexander Lukashenko, changed all of that upon assuming office in 1994 and began to turn his attention away from the West and back towards Russia. And, during his rule, Lukashenko began to re-instate Soviet-era functions and reintroduced the symbols from Soviet Belarus. Lukashenko, who is still in power, has caused increased focus on his country due to his leadership manner, which has been considered authoritarian by some and a dictatorship by others.
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Jean Piaget | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:08:19
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Jean Piaget 00:01:34 1 Personal life 00:05:41 2 Career history 00:06:27 2.1 Piaget before psychology 00:07:12 2.2 Sociological model of development 00:08:26 2.3 Biological model of intellectual development 00:10:10 2.4 Elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development 00:11:10 2.5 Study of figurative thought 00:12:44 3 Theory 00:14:20 3.1 Stages 00:20:35 3.2 Developmental process 00:26:54 3.3 Genetic epistemology 00:27:42 3.4 Schema 00:30:30 3.4.1 Physical microstructure of schemata 00:31:05 4 Research methods 00:33:37 4.1 Issues and possible solutions 00:34:46 4.2 Development of new methods 00:35:56 4.2.1 Criticism of Piaget's research methods 00:37:18 4.3 Development of research methods 00:38:45 5 Influence 00:39:30 5.1 Developmental psychology 00:40:06 5.2 Piaget on education 00:43:31 5.3 Education 00:46:25 5.4 Morality 00:49:23 5.5 Historical studies of thought and cognition 00:50:39 5.6 Non-human development 00:51:04 5.7 Origins 00:51:37 5.8 Primatology 00:51:57 5.9 Philosophy 00:52:50 5.10 Artificial intelligence 00:53:35 6 Challenges 00:56:24 7 Quotations 00:56:38 8 List of major achievements 00:56:48 8.1 Appointments 00:58:18 8.2 Honorary doctorates 00:59:12 9 List of major works 00:59:27 9.1 Classics 01:01:17 9.2 Major works 01:02:12 9.3 Significant works 01:04:28 9.4 Notable works 01:06:42 9.5 New translations 01:07:16 10 See also 01:07:54 10.1 Collaborators 01:08:03 10.2 Translators Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Jean Piaget (UK: , US: ; French: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." His theory of child development is studied in pre-service education programs. Educators continue to incorporate constructivist-based strategies. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 while on the faculty of the University of Geneva and directed the Center until his death in 1980. The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory".According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing." However, his ideas did not become widely popularized until the 1960s. This then led to the emergence of the study of development as a major sub-discipline in psychology. By the end of the 20th century, Piaget was second only to B. F. Skinner as the most cited psychologist of that era.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Neoliberalism | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:15
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Neoliberalism 00:03:08 1 Terminology 00:03:17 1.1 Origins 00:06:22 1.2 Current usage 00:10:29 2 Early history 00:10:38 2.1 Colloque Walter Lippmann 00:12:11 2.2 Mont Pelerin Society 00:13:31 3 Post-World War II neo-liberal currents 00:13:42 3.1 Argentina 00:16:08 3.2 Australia 00:17:41 3.3 Chile 00:20:05 3.4 European Union 00:20:34 3.5 Germany 00:24:32 3.6 Middle East 00:25:25 3.7 China 00:25:50 3.8 United Kingdom 00:26:43 3.9 United States 00:29:47 3.10 New Zealand 00:31:55 4 Traditions 00:32:04 4.1 Austrian School 00:34:37 4.2 Chicago School 00:35:55 5 Political policy aspects 00:36:05 5.1 Political freedom 00:38:24 6 Criticism 00:38:54 6.1 Focus on economic efficiency 00:40:32 6.2 Class project 00:44:54 6.3 Global health 00:49:12 6.4 Infrastructure 00:51:27 6.5 Corporatocracy 00:52:09 6.6 Environmental impact 00:53:08 6.7 Political opposition 01:00:47 7 See also 01:00:56 8 Notes 01:01:04 9 Further reading 01:01:13 10 External links 01:02:34 10.1 Online lectures Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism is the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism and free-market capitalism. Those ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society. These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980.English-speakers have used the term "neoliberalism" since the start of the 20th century with different meanings, but it became more prevalent in its current meaning in the 1970s and 1980s, used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences as well as by critics. Modern advocates of free market policies avoid the term "neoliberal" and some scholars have described the term as meaning different things to different people as neoliberalism "mutated" into geopolitically distinct hybrids as it travelled around the world. As such, neoliberalism shares many attributes with other concepts that have contested meanings, including democracy.The definition and usage of the term have changed over time. As an economic philosophy, neoliberalism emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s as they attempted to trace a so-called "third" or "middle" way between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning. The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which neoliberals mostly blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term "neoliberal" tended to refer to theories which diverged from the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism and which promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy. In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" heavily declined. When the term re-appeared in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet's economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted. It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it also had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of Mont Pelerin Society economists Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman and James M. Buchanan, along with politicians and policy-makers such as Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Alan Greenspan. Once the new meaning of neoliberalism became established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused into the English-language study of political economy. By 1994, with the passage of NAFTA and with the Zapatistas' reaction to this development in Chiap ...
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Georgia (country) | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:25:53
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Georgia (country) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, translit.: sakartvelo, IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] ( listen)) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. The sovereign state of Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis, later known as Lazica and Iberia. The Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and successive dynasties of Iran. In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders. After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; aimed at NATO and European integration, it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms. This brought about mixed results, but strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained very limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation.
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College and university rankings | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:21:36
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: College and university rankings 00:01:35 1 Global rankings 00:04:44 1.1 A3 Top 500 Global Universities 00:05:40 1.2 Academic Ranking of World Universities 00:07:10 1.3 Center for World University Rankings 00:07:51 1.4 Eduniversal 00:08:12 1.5 G-factor 00:08:52 1.6 Global University Ranking 00:09:55 1.7 HEEACT—Ranking of Scientific Papers 00:11:51 1.8 Human Resources & Labor Review 00:13:13 1.9 High Impact Universities: Research Performance Index 00:14:22 1.10 Leiden Ranking 00:15:05 1.11 Nature Index 00:16:17 1.12 Newsweek 00:17:13 1.13 Professional Ranking of World Universities 00:17:52 1.14 QS World University Rankings 00:21:28 1.14.1 QS Asian University Rankings 00:22:31 1.14.2 QS Latin American University Rankings 00:23:20 1.15 Reuters World's Top 100 Innovative Universities 00:24:39 1.16 Round University Ranking 00:25:47 1.17 SCImago Institutions Rankings 00:26:34 1.18 Times Higher Education World University Rankings 00:28:30 1.18.1 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings 00:29:34 1.19 U-Multirank 00:30:26 1.20 UniRanks "The Ranking of Rankings" 00:31:09 1.21 University Ranking by Academic Performance 00:32:13 1.22 U.S. News & World Report's Best Global Universities Rankings 00:35:07 1.23 Webometrics 00:36:50 1.24 Wuhan University 00:37:17 2 Regional and national rankings 00:37:35 2.1 Asia 00:38:01 2.1.1 China 00:38:36 2.1.2 India 00:39:07 2.1.3 Japan 00:40:01 2.1.4 Pakistan 00:40:15 2.1.5 Philippines 00:40:34 2.1.6 South Korea 00:40:50 2.2 Europe 00:40:58 2.2.1 European Union 00:43:01 2.2.2 Austria 00:43:18 2.2.3 Bulgaria 00:43:49 2.2.4 Denmark 00:44:12 2.2.5 France 00:44:39 2.2.6 Germany 00:45:41 2.2.7 Ireland 00:46:06 2.2.8 Italy 00:46:22 2.2.9 Macedonia 00:47:03 2.2.10 Netherlands 00:47:16 2.2.11 Poland 00:47:32 2.2.12 Romania 00:47:48 2.2.13 Russian Federation 00:49:34 2.2.14 Sweden 00:49:58 2.2.15 Switzerland 00:50:23 2.2.16 Ukraine 00:50:49 2.2.17 United Kingdom 00:53:42 2.3 North America 00:53:51 2.3.1 Canada 00:55:52 2.3.2 Mexico 00:56:00 2.3.2.1 Estudio Comparativo de Universidades Mexicanas (ECUM) 00:58:39 2.3.3 United States 00:58:47 2.3.3.1 Council for Aid to Education 00:59:20 2.3.3.2 The Daily Beast's Guide to the Best Colleges 01:00:06 2.3.3.3 iThe Economist'/is "Best Colleges. The Value of University" 01:00:54 2.3.3.4 Forbes College rankings 01:02:13 2.3.3.5 The "Objective" College rankings 01:02:57 2.3.3.6 Money's Best Colleges 01:03:30 2.3.3.7 The Princeton Review Dream Colleges 01:04:03 2.3.3.8 Revealed preference rankings 01:05:06 2.3.3.9 Social Mobility Index (SMI) rankings 01:05:57 2.3.3.10 iU.S. News & World Report/i college and university rankings 01:07:56 2.3.3.11 United States National Research Council Rankings 01:08:19 2.3.3.12 Faculty Scholarly Productivity rankings 01:08:41 2.3.3.13 The Top American Research Universities 01:09:24 2.3.3.14 Washington Monthly College rankings 01:10:40 2.3.3.15 TrendTopper MediaBuzz College Guide 01:12:09 2.3.3.16 American Council of Trustees and Alumni 01:13:14 2.3.3.17 Niche College Rankings 01:14:25 2.3.3.18 Other 01:16:49 2.4 Oceania 01:16:57 2.4.1 Australia 01:17:13 2.5 South America 01:17:21 2.5.1 QS University Rankings: Latin America 01:17:51 2.5.2 Argentina 01:18:09 2.5.3 Brazil 01:18:35 2.5.4 Chile 01:19:26 3 Criticism 01:20:14 4 See also 01:20:27 5 Sources 01:21:03 6 Notes and references 01:21:13 7 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors. Rankings have most often been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, or academics. In addition to ranking entire institutions, organizations perform rankings of specific programs, departments, and schools. Various rankings consider combinations of measures of funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialization expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, i ...
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Donald Trump | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:46:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Donald Trump Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens. He received an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products. He managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he produced and hosted the reality television show, The Apprentice, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries. Commentators described his political positions as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. His campaign received extensive free media coverage; many of his public statements were controversial or false. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. He became the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, and the fifth to have won the election while losing the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He signed tax cut legislation which cut tax rates for individuals and businesses and also rescinded the individual insurance mandate provision of the Affordable Care Act and opened the Arctic Refuge for oil drilling. He enacted a partial repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, and negotiated with North Korea with the aim of denuclearization. He nominated two justices to the Supreme Court, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, the Justice Department appointed Robert Mueller as Special Counsel to investigate "any links and/or coordination" between the Trump campaign and the Russian government in its election interference. Trump has repeatedly denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt".
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Moldova | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:16:04
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Moldova 00:02:49 1 Etymology 00:03:49 2 History 00:03:58 2.1 Prehistory 00:04:57 2.2 Moldovan lands in antiquity and the early Middle Ages 00:06:47 2.3 Founding of the Principality of Moldavia 00:07:55 2.4 Between Poland and Hungary 00:10:37 2.5 The Ottomans 00:13:08 2.6 Modern history 00:13:17 2.6.1 Russian Empire 00:15:19 2.6.2 Russian Revolution and Greater Romania 00:17:40 2.6.3 World War II and Soviet era 00:23:07 2.6.4 Independence 00:31:26 3 Government 00:33:33 3.1 Internal affairs 00:34:23 3.2 Foreign relations 00:38:15 3.3 Military 00:40:04 3.4 Human rights 00:41:48 3.5 Administrative divisions 00:42:55 4 Geography 00:45:03 4.1 Climate 00:46:25 5 Economy 00:54:10 5.1 Energy 00:55:09 5.2 Wine industry 00:55:52 5.3 Agriculture 00:56:20 5.4 Tourism 00:56:44 5.5 Transport 00:57:31 6 Telecommunications 00:58:30 7 Demographics 00:59:21 7.1 Cultural and ethnic composition 01:01:09 7.2 Languages 01:03:08 7.3 Religion 01:03:57 7.4 Education 01:05:16 7.5 Crime 01:05:58 7.6 Health and fertility 01:07:37 7.7 Emigration 01:08:04 8 Culture 01:10:47 8.1 Media 01:11:29 8.2 Food and beverage 01:12:04 8.3 Music 01:14:32 8.4 Holidays 01:15:01 8.5 Sports 01:15:48 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Moldova ( (listen), sometimes UK: ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became autonomous and then the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR. On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and aspires to join the European Union.
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Occupy movement | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:37:03
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Occupy movement Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Occupy movement was an international progressive, socio-political movement against social and economic inequality and the lack of "real democracy" around the world. It aimed primarily to advance social and economic justice and new forms of democracy. The movement had many different scopes; local groups often had different focuses, but among the movement's prime concerns were how large corporations (and the global financial system) control the world in a way that disproportionately benefited a minority, undermined democracy, and was unstable. "Occupy" formed part of what Manfred Steger called the "global justice movement".The first Occupy protest to receive widespread attention, Occupy Wall Street in New York City's Zuccotti Park, began on 17 September 2011. By 9 October, Occupy protests had taken place or were ongoing in over 951 cities across 82 countries, and in over 600 communities in the United States. Although most active in the United States, by October 2012 there had been Occupy protests and occupations in dozens of other countries across every inhabited continent. For the first month, overt police repression remained minimal, but this began to change by 25 October 2011 when police first attempted to forcibly remove Occupy Oakland. By the end of 2011, authorities had cleared most of the major camps, with the last remaining high-profile sites – in Washington, D.C. and in London – evicted by February 2012.The Occupy movement took inspiration in part from the Arab Spring, from the 2009 Iranian Green Movement, and from the Spanish Indignados Movement, as well as from the overall global wave of anti-austerity protests. The movement commonly uses the slogan "We are the 99%" and the #Occupy hashtag format; it organizes through websites such as Occupy Together. According to The Washington Post, the movement, which Cornel West described as a "democratic awakening", is difficult to distill to a few demands. On 12 October 2011, Los Angeles City Council became one of the first governmental bodies in the United States to adopt a resolution stating its informal support of the Occupy movement. In October 2012, the Executive Director of Financial Stability at the Bank of England stated that the protesters were right to criticise and had persuaded bankers and politicians "to behave in a more moral way".
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Moldova | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:15:46
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Moldova 00:02:48 1 Etymology 00:03:48 2 History 00:03:57 2.1 Prehistory 00:04:54 2.2 Moldovan lands in antiquity and the early Middle Ages 00:06:44 2.3 Founding of the Principality of Moldavia 00:07:52 2.4 Between Poland and Hungary 00:10:34 2.5 The Ottomans 00:13:04 2.6 Modern history 00:13:13 2.6.1 Russian Empire 00:15:15 2.6.2 Russian Revolution and Greater Romania 00:17:35 2.6.3 World War II and Soviet era 00:23:00 2.6.4 Independence 00:31:17 3 Government 00:33:24 3.1 Internal affairs 00:34:14 3.2 Foreign relations 00:38:05 3.3 Military 00:39:54 3.4 Human rights 00:41:37 3.5 Administrative divisions 00:42:44 4 Geography 00:44:52 4.1 Climate 00:46:13 5 Economy 00:53:56 5.1 Energy 00:54:56 5.2 Wine industry 00:55:38 5.3 Agriculture 00:56:07 5.4 Tourism 00:56:30 5.5 Transport 00:57:17 6 Telecommunications 00:58:16 7 Demographics 00:59:07 7.1 Cultural and ethnic composition 01:00:54 7.2 Languages 01:02:52 7.3 Religion 01:03:41 7.4 Education 01:05:00 7.5 Crime 01:05:42 7.6 Health and fertility 01:07:20 7.7 Emigration 01:07:47 8 Culture 01:10:29 8.1 Media 01:11:11 8.2 Food and beverage 01:11:46 8.3 Music 01:14:14 8.4 Holidays 01:14:42 8.5 Sports 01:15:30 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Moldova ( (listen), sometimes UK: ), officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal state) and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became autonomous and then the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly. The decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic (MASSR) on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR), which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR. On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994. The strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is also the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad.Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and aspires to join the European Union.
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Thai Airways International | Wikipedia audio article
 
34:19
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Thai Airways International 00:01:40 1 History 00:01:49 1.1 Beginnings 00:03:35 1.2 1980s and 1990s: merger with Thai Airways Company 00:04:33 1.3 2000s: Airline brand renewal and financial difficulties 00:07:36 1.4 2010s: Fleet renewal and expansion 00:13:22 1.5 Rolls-Royce engine procurement 00:15:00 2 Destinations 00:15:09 2.1 Codeshare agreements 00:15:22 3 Corporate 00:15:31 3.1 Financials 00:17:11 3.2 2018 recovery plan 00:18:56 3.3 Management issues 00:19:31 4 Fleet 00:19:40 4.1 Current fleet 00:19:56 4.2 Remarks 00:20:26 4.3 Fleet development plans 00:23:37 4.4 Fleet History 00:23:46 5 Aircraft maintenance centers 00:24:10 5.1 THAI Technical 00:25:11 6 Hygiene 00:26:15 7 Cabin Services 00:26:25 7.1 Royal First Class (First Class) 00:27:04 7.2 Royal Silk Class (Business Class) 00:28:15 7.3 Economy Class 00:28:54 8 Royal Orchid Plus 00:29:44 9 Accidents and incidents 00:34:00 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thai Airways International Public Company Limited, trading as THAI (SET: THAI, Thai: บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)) is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquarters in Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak District, Bangkok, and primarily operates from Suvarnabhumi Airport. THAI is a founding member of the Star Alliance. The airline is the second-largest shareholder of the low-cost carrier Nok Air with a 21.80 per cent stake, and it launched a regional carrier under the name Thai Smile in the middle of 2012 using new Airbus A320 aircraft.From its hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport and secondary hub at Phuket International Airport, THAI (including subsidiaries) flies to 84 destinations in 37 countries, using a fleet of over 90 aircraft. The airline was once the operator of two of the world's longest non-stop routes between Bangkok and Los Angeles and New York City, but due to high fuel prices, the withdrawal of aircraft, luggage weight limits and rising airfares, the airline abandoned all non-stop US services in 2012 indefinitely. As of 2013, services between Bangkok and Los Angeles were served via Incheon International Airport near Seoul, however, it ended its service to the US on 25 October 2015. THAI's route network is dominated by flights to Europe, East Asia, and South/Southwest Asia, though the airline serves five cities in Oceania. THAI was the first Asia-Pacific airline to serve London Heathrow Airport. Among Asia-Pacific carriers, THAI has one of the largest passenger operations in Europe.
Views: 0 Subhajit Sahu
Geneva | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:10:44
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva 00:02:16 1 Name 00:03:16 2 History 00:05:05 3 Geography and climate 00:05:15 3.1 Topography 00:08:10 3.2 Climate 00:10:05 4 Politics 00:10:14 4.1 Coat of arms 00:10:22 4.2 Administrative divisions 00:10:55 4.3 Government 00:12:34 4.4 Municipal Council 00:14:05 4.5 Elections 00:14:13 4.5.1 National Council 00:14:55 4.6 International relations 00:15:13 5 Demographics 00:15:22 5.1 Population 00:24:47 5.2 Historical population 00:25:10 5.3 Religion 00:28:12 5.3.1 Protestant Rome 00:30:29 5.4 Crime 00:30:59 6 Cityscape 00:31:08 7 Heritage sites of national significance 00:34:51 8 Society and culture 00:35:01 8.1 Media 00:36:20 8.2 Traditions and customs 00:38:20 8.3 Music and festivals 00:39:22 9 Education 00:43:23 10 Economy 00:48:14 11 Sport 00:49:19 12 Infrastructure 00:49:28 12.1 Transportation 00:52:11 12.2 Utilities 00:53:41 13 International organisations 00:55:54 14 Notable people 00:56:03 14.1 A–C 00:58:56 14.2 D–G 01:01:38 14.3 H–M 01:04:24 14.4 N-R 01:06:25 14.5 S–Z 01:09:17 15 See also 01:09:48 16 Notes and references 01:09:58 17 Bibliography 01:10:29 18 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Geneva (; French: Genève [ʒənɛv]; Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva]; German: Genf [ɡɛnf]; Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra]; Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva. The municipality (ville de Genève) has a population (as of December 2017) of 200,548, and the canton (essentially the city and its inner-ring suburbs) has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area (Vevey, Montreux) and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, and a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is also where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war. In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich, Frankfurt and Luxembourg. A 2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world (behind Vienna and Zürich for expatriates; it is narrowly outranked by Zürich). The city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018.
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Folate | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Folate 00:02:09 1 Definition 00:02:43 2 Health effects 00:04:47 2.1 Pregnancy 00:06:33 2.2 Fertility 00:07:04 2.3 Heart disease 00:07:35 2.4 Stroke 00:08:36 2.5 Cancer 00:09:18 2.5.1 Antifolate chemotherapy 00:10:55 2.6 Neurological 00:12:01 2.7 Age-related macular degeneration 00:12:46 2.8 Folic acid, Bsub12/sub and iron 00:13:10 2.9 Folate deficiency 00:15:42 2.10 Malaria 00:16:07 3 Dietary recommendations 00:18:03 3.1 Safety 00:19:13 3.2 Food labeling 00:20:28 3.3 Sources 00:22:19 4 Biological roles 00:22:56 4.1 C1-derivatives of folate 00:24:01 4.2 DNA production 00:24:43 4.3 Amino acid processing 00:25:34 4.4 Conversion to biologically active derivatives 00:26:24 5 Drugs that interfere with folate reactions 00:27:27 6 Food fortification 00:29:46 6.1 Australia and New Zealand 00:30:53 6.2 Canada 00:32:13 6.3 United Kingdom 00:32:44 6.4 United States 00:35:28 7 History 00:37:17 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins. It may be taken by mouth or by injection. The recommended adult daily intake of folate in the U.S. is 400 micrograms from foods or dietary supplements. Folate in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folic acid deficiency. Folic acid is also used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the baby. Low levels in early pregnancy are believed to be the cause of more than half of babies born with NTDs. More than 80 countries use fortification of certain foods with folic acid as a measure to decrease the rate of NTDs. Long-term supplementation is also associated with small reductions in the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.No common side effects are known. Concerns exist that large amounts of folic acid might hide vitamin B12 deficiency. Folic acid is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolise amino acids, which are required for cell division. Not consuming enough folate can lead to folate deficiency. This may result in a type of anemia in which low numbers of large red blood cells occur. Symptoms may include feeling tired, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, open sores on the tongue, and changes in the color of the skin or hair. Folate deficiency in children may develop within a month of poor dietary intake. In adults, normal total body folate is between 10 and 30 mg with blood levels of greater than 7 nmol/L (3 ng/mL).Folate is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost of supplements in the developing world is between US$0.001 and 0.005 per dose as of 2014. The term "folic" is from the Latin word folium (which means leaf) because it was found in dark-green leafy vegetables. Folates occur naturally in many foods.
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