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Case-Control Studies: A Brief Overview
 
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Case-control studies are observational studies that have the greatest risk of bias. I will describe the basic design of case-control studies and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.
Views: 30382 Terry Shaneyfelt
Cohort, Case-Control, Meta-Analysis, Cross-sectional Study Designs & Definition
 
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http://www.stomponstep1.com/cohort-case-control-meta-analysis-cross-sectional-study-designs/ Based on the types of bias that are inherent in some study designs we can rank different study designs based on their validity. The types of research studies at the top of the list have the highest validity while those at the bottom have lower validity. In most cases if 2 studies on the same topic come to different conclusions, you assume the trial of the more valid type is correct. However, this is not always the case. Any study design can have bias. A very well designed and executed cohort study can yield more valid results than a clinical trial with clear deficiencies. • Meta-analysis of multiple Randomized Trials (Highest Validity) • Randomized Trial • Prospective Cohort Studies • Case Control Studies or Retrospective Cohort • Case Series (Lowest Validity) Meta-analysis is the process of taking results from multiple different studies and combining them to reach a single conclusion. Doing this is sort of like having one huge study with a very large sample size and therefore meta-analysis has higher power than individual studies. Clinical trials are the gold standard of research for therapeutic and preventative interventions. The researchers have a high level of control over most factors. This allows for randomization and blinding which aren't possible in many other study types. Participant's groups are assigned by the researcher in clinical trials while in observational studies "natural conditions" (personal preference, genetics, social determinants, environment, lifestyle ...) assign the group. As we will see later, the incidence in different groups is compared using Relative Risk (RR). Cohort Studies are studies where you first determine whether or not a person has had an exposure and then you monitor the occurrence of health outcomes overtime. It is the observational study design with the highest validity. Cohort is just a fancy name for a group, and this should help you remember this study design. You start with a group of people (some of whom happen to have an exposure and some who don't). Then you follow this group for a certain amount of time and monitor how often certain diseases or health outcomes arise. It is easier to conceptually understand cohort studies that are prospective. However, there are retrospective cohort studies also. In this scenario you identify a group of people in the past. You then first identify whether or not these people had the particular exposure at that point in time and determine whether or not they ended up getting the health outcomes later on. As we will see later, the incidence in different groups in a cohort study is compared using Relative Risk (RR). Case-Control Studies are retrospective and observational. You first identify people who have the health outcome of interest. Then you carefully select a group of controls that are very similar to your diseased population except they don't have that particular disease. Then you try to determine whether or not the participants from each group had a particular exposure in the past. I remember this by thinking that in a case control study you start off knowing whether a person is diseased (a case) or not diseased (a control). There isn't a huge difference between retrospective cohort and case-control. You are basically doing the same steps but in a slightly different order. However, the two study designs are used in different settings. As we will see later, the incidence in different groups in a case-control study is compared using Odds Ratio (OR). A Case-Series is a small collection of individual cases. It is an observational study with a very small sample size and no control group. Basically you are just reviewing the medical records for a few people with a particular exposure or disease. A study like this is good for very rare exposures or diseases. Obviously the small sample size and lack of a control group limits the validity of any conclusions that are made, but in certain situations this is the best evidence that is available. Cross Sectional Studies are different from the others we have discussed. While the other studies measure the incidence of a particular health outcome over time, a cross-sectional study measures Prevalence. In this observational study the prevalence of the exposure and the health outcome are measured at the same time. You are basically trying to figure out how many people in the population have the disease and how many people have the exposure at one point in time. It is hard to determine an association between the exposure and disease just from this information, but you can still learn things from these studies. If the exposure and disease are both common in a particular population it may be worth investing more resources to do a different type of study to determine whether or not there is a causal relationship.
Views: 111467 Stomp On Step 1
Case control studies
 
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Views: 38003 Elizabeth Lynch
Epidemiological Studies - made easy!
 
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This video gives a simple overview of the most common types of epidemiological studies, their advantages and disadvantages. These include ecological, case-series, case control, cohort and interventional studies. It also looks at systematic reviews and meta-analysis. This video was created by Ranil Appuhamy Voiceover - James Clark -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disclaimer: These videos are provided for educational purposes only. Users should not rely solely on the information contained within these videos and is not intended to be a substitute for advice from other relevant sources. The author/s do not warrant or represent that the information contained in the videos are accurate, current or complete and do not accept any legal liability or responsibility for any loss, damages, costs or expenses incurred by the use of, or reliance on, or interpretation of, the information contained in the videos.
"Case Control Study"........ In 10 Mintues !!!!
 
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Case Control Study Cases Control Retrospective studies Fast and inexpensive Recall and Selection Bias Causation difficult to established Useful in rare diseases....
Cohort and Case Control Studies
 
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In this short video, Dr Greg Martin discusses Case Control and Cohort studies. He compares the strengthes of each study design and descibes when each of them would be a preferred research method. Global health (and public health) is truly multidisciplinary and leans on epidemiology, health economics, health policy, statistics, ethics, demography.... the list goes on and on. This YouTube channel is here to provide you with some teaching and information on these topics. I've also posted some videos on how to find work in the global health space and how to raise money or get a grant for your projects. Please feel free to leave comments and questions - I'll respond to all of them (we'll, I'll try to at least). Feel free to make suggestions as to future content for the channel. USEFUL LINKS: ———————— Channel page: https://www.youtube.com/user/drgregmartin Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/user/drgregmartin?sub_confirmation=1 Google+: http://www.google.com/+drgregmartin Twitter: @drgregmartin Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Globalization-and-Health/65203692209 HERE ARE SOME PLAYLISTS ——————————————- Finding work in Global Health https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLujS9ooBebKUVCfWnPjnU0bURrus7ypII Epidemiology https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLujS9ooBebKWlbmIQOtYaJBjKE4VSimXJ Global Health Ethics https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLujS9ooBebKWLZLpXpX9tLke00kHcHgUo Global Health Facts https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFD42B40B3C9488E9 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Know how interpret an epidemic curve?" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SM4PN7Yg1s -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
USMLE Step 1 Epidemiology Principles: Study Designs
 
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Cross-sectional, cohort and case control studies. See more at www.boardsbeyond.com.
Views: 70503 Boards and Beyond
Case Control vs. Cohort Study || USMLE
 
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►Patreon (support us!): https://www.patreon.com/dirtyusmle ►Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Dirty-USMLE-161278991244235/
Views: 48722 DirtyUSMLE
Case control studies recorded lecture
 
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Case Control Studies
Views: 524 Theresa Stack
case control example
 
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Views: 10549 Elizabeth Lynch
Stratified analysis of case-control data in Stata®
 
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Discover how to calculate odds ratios for the stratified analysis of case-control data. Created using Stata 12. Copyright 2011-2017 StataCorp LLC. All rights reserved.
Views: 16370 StataCorp LLC
Minimizing Bias in the Design of Cohort and Case-Control Studies Webinar
 
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Enhance your research skills with the Minimizing Bias in the Design of Cohort and Case-Control Studies webcast, which will highlight the most essential aspects of the cohort and case-control study designs. Faculty will draw on relevant examples from the critical care literature to demonstrate important concepts. Strategies and best practices for avoiding bias when performing your own research and when collaborating with others will also be explored. This is a grant-sponsored webcast; it is complimentary for attendees. This webcast is brought to you by the Discovery Network, the critical care research network at SCCM.
Views: 235 Critical Care
Case Control Studies
 
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This mini-tutorial identifies the key features of a case control study. It also identifies the type of data measure calculated; and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this study design.
Views: 9797 PACE MySPH
Epidemiology Study Types: Cohort and Case-Control
 
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What makes a cohort vs. a case-control study? Find out in this video.
Views: 135441 daf189
Cohort & Case Control
 
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شرح يوسف محمود
Views: 6242 أطباء 2021
Case control studies
 
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Views: 811 prof smith
Create a matched pair case-control
 
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Epi Info 7 allows users to rapidly develop questionnaires, customize data entry, analyze data and create custom reports. As part of the CDC's supported data tools, Epi Info provides interactive analysis of surveillance system data. Epi Info features case cluster mapping using Google maps, contact tracing using social network diagrams, SQL Server compatibility for large databases and multiuser applications, requires no IT support to install and future compatibility with hand-held devices. Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/videos/epiinfo/17/17_Epi_Info_7_Matched_pair_case-control_low_res.mp4
Case-Control Studies
 
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A tutorial regarding case-control study designs. These studies are used to evaluate the risk of disease or relatively rare adverse events.
Views: 1127 iForumRx
Study Designs I: Cross Sectional and Case Control Studies
 
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Prepared for University of Victoria, PHSP 501.
Views: 84 Kiffer Card
Controlling Confounding During the Design Phase of a Study
 
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Confounders can be controlled during the design phase and the analysis phase of a study. This video will discuss several methods available to control confounding during the design phase.
Views: 5424 Terry Shaneyfelt
USMLE Biostats 2: Types of Research Studies (Case Control, Cohort, RCT and more!)
 
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Welcome to LY Med, where I go over everything you need to know for the USMLE STEP 1, with new videos every day. Follow along with First Aid, or with my notes which can be found here: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/an1j9swvjxu46hh/AACd2RIXeEZqghQkGY4EtKZYa?dl=0 This video is going to be on the different types of research. There are two broad categories: experimental (interventional) and observational. There are three types of observational studies: case control, cohort, and cross sectional. Cohort studies: this is a prospective study, when you take a group of people (cohort) who do not have the disease, but have risk factors. Then you watch them prospectively and see if they develop the disease. You then compare this relative to those who don't have the risk factor: relative risk. Case control: this is the opposite. This is a retrospective disease, where you get a group of people with the disease and look retrospectively to assess for risk factors. This study helps measure the odds ratio. Cross sectional studies: this looks at the prevalence of the disease in the present. The group is gathered regardless of exposure or disease. Some other study types include twin concordance study which looks at the genetic link between disease in twins. Another one is adoption study, which looks at nature vs nuture in children who are adopted to other families. Our next big category of studies are experimental studies. The best ways to conduct an experimental study is to randomize your groups, having a control group. The gold standard for experimental studies is called a randomized controlled trial for that reason. There are some subtypes of RCTS, including a crossover study where members from one group crossover to the other. Another one is a meta-analysis, which pools common RCT that increase the sample size and power. Last topic - the stages of an RCT. The first phase is to look at safety, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and side effects. The second phase is on efficacy. This is where most drugs fail. Phase three is whether or not the drug is better. Phase four deals with the longevity of the drug and to monitor it for long term side effects.
Views: 3770 LY Med
Case-Control vs. Cohort Studies
 
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Quick overview between case-control studies and cohort studies. Check us out on Facebook for DAILY FREE REVIEW QUESTIONS and updates! (https://www.facebook.com/medschoolmad...) Check out our website for TONS OF FREE REVIEW QUESTIONS! (http://medschoolmadeeasy.com/) Thanks for stopping by, and we love hearing from you! Disclaimer: the information in this video only represents the knowledge and property of the video’s authors- no one else.
Views: 10723 Med School Made Easy
What is a case--control study?
 
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A two-minute video giving a quick introduction to the case--control study design by Adrian Barnett.
Views: 10550 Megan Campbell
Types of Case Study. Part 1 of 3 on Case Studies
 
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A lecture on case studies as a research strategy taken from a series on research methods and research design given to masters (graduate) students by Graham R Gibbs at the University of Huddersfield. This is part 1 of three, and deals with the different kinds of case studies and looks at some key examples from the social sciences such as single cases, community studies and organizations, institutions, events, roles and relationships as cases. Somer references on case studies Edwards, D. 1. A. (1998) Types of case study work: A conceptual framework for case-based research, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 3 8(3), pp. 36-70. Gerring, John (2007) Case Study Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gomm, R., Hammersley, M. & Foster, P. (eds) (2000) Case Study Method. London: Sage. Miles, A B, & Huberman, A.M. (1994) Qualitative data analysis. an expanded sourcebook, Sage. Robson, C. (1993) Real World Research, Oxford: Blackwell. Simons, H. (2009). Case study research in practice. London: SAGE. Stake, R. (1994) Case Studies, In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage. Swaborn, P (2010) Case Study Research, London: SAGE. Tight, M (2017) Understanding Case Study Research: Small Scale Research with Meaning. Thousand Oaks, CA; London;: SAGE. Thomas, Gary (2016) How to do your case study, 2nd Ed. London: SAGE Travers, M. (2013). Qualitative research through case studies. Thousand Oaks, CA;London;: SAGE. Wilson, S. L. (1995) Single case experimental designs. In G. M. Breakwell, S, Hammond & C. Fife-Shaw (Eds.), Research Method in Psychology, Sage. Yin, R. & (1998) The Abridged Version of Case Study Research: Design and Method. In: L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. pp 229 - 259. Yin, R. K (2014) Case Study Research: Design &Methods, 5th Ed, Sage. Yin, R. K. (2011) Applications of Case Study Research. 3rd Ed. London: Sage.
Views: 171103 Graham R Gibbs
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
 
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A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an experimental form of impact evaluation in which the population receiving the programme or policy intervention is chosen at random from the eligible population, and a control group is also chosen at random from the same eligible population. It tests the extent to which specific, planned impacts are being achieved. The distinguishing feature of an RCT is the random assignment of units (e.g. people, schools, villages, etc.) to the intervention or control groups. One of its strengths is that it provides a very powerful response to questions of causality, helping evaluators and programme implementers to know that what is being achieved is as a result of the intervention and not anything else. This video summarizes the key features of an RCT. For details, please read Brief 7 at http://www.unicef-irc.org/KM/IE/
Views: 90292 UNICEF Innocenti
IPPCR 2015: Design of Epidemiologic Studies
 
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Introduction to the Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (IPPCR) 2015: Design of Epidemiologic Studies Air date: Monday, October 26, 2015, 5:00:00 PM Category: IPPCR Runtime: 01:30:35 Description: The Introduction to the Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (IPPCR) is a course to train participants on how to effectively conduct clinical research. The course focuses on the spectrum of clinical research and the research process by highlighting epidemiologic methods, study design, protocol preparation, patient monitoring, quality assurance, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues. For more information go to https://ippcr.nihtraining.com/login.php Author: Laura Lee Johnson, Ph.D., FDA Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19268
Views: 8093 nihvcast
Cohort Studies..... Made Easy !!!
 
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Cohort Studies.. Enjoy Learning !!
(Epidemiology Course) Case Control Study Design Part 16 out of 26
 
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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare
Views: 187 Waheed Kab
Odds ratio SPSS
 
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Using SPSS to calculate an Odds Ratio for a Case-Control study
Views: 13297 Philip Dee
What is RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY? What does RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY mean?
 
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What is RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY? What does RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY mean? RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY meaning - RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY definition - RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a longitudinal cohort study used in medical and psychological research. A cohort of individuals that share a common exposure factor is compared to another group of equivalent individuals not exposed to that factor, to determine the factor's influence on the incidence of a condition such as disease or death. Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies. The retrospective cohort study compares groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke and ones who do not smoke) in terms of a particular outcome (such as lung cancer). Data on the relevant events for each individual (the form and time of exposure to a factor, the latent period, and the time of any subsequent occurrence of the outcome) are collected from existing records and can immediately be analyzed to determine the relative risk of the cohort compared to the control group. This is expressed as a risk ratio or odds ratio. This is fundamentally the same methodology as for a prospective cohort study, except that the retrospective study is performed post-hoc, looking back. The prospective study looks forward, enrolling patients unaffected by the outcome and observing them to see whether the outcome has occurred. However, both kinds of cohort studies share the same starting point (considering data from before the occurrence of the outcome). The first objective is still to establish two groups - exposed versus non-exposed - which are then assessed retrospectively to establish the most likely temporal sequence of events leading to the current disease state in both the exposed and unexposed groups. Retrospective cohort studies require particular caution because errors due to confounding and bias are more common than in prospective studies. Retrospective cohort studies exhibit the benefits of cohort studies and have distinct advantages relative to prospective ones: They are conducted on a smaller scale. They typically require less time to complete. They are generally less expensive, because resources are mainly devoted to collecting data. They are better for analyzing multiple outcomes. In a medical context, they can potentially address rare diseases, which would necessitate extremely large cohorts in prospective studies. Retrospective studies are especially helpful in addressing diseases of low incidence, since affected people have already been identified so . The fact that retrospective studies are generally less expensive than prospective studies may be another key benefit. Additionally, it has essentially all the benefits of a cohort study. Retrospective studies have disadvantages vis-a-vis prospective studies: Some key statistics cannot be measured, and significant biases may affect the selection of controls. Researchers cannot control exposure or outcome assessment, and instead must rely on others for accurate recordkeeping. When relying on individual recall of former exposure to risk variables, recall may be inaccurate and subject to biases. It can be very difficult to make accurate comparisons between the exposed and the non-exposed. The retrospective aspect may introduce selection bias and mis-classification or information bias. With retrospective studies, the temporal relationship is frequently difficult to assess. Retrospective studies may need very large sample sizes for rare outcomes.
Views: 1455 The Audiopedia
Types of statistical studies | Study design | AP Statistics | Khan Academy
 
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Types of statistical studies. View more lessons or practice this subject at http://www.khanacademy.org/math/ap-statistics/gathering-data-ap/types-of-studies-experimental-vs-observational/v/types-of-statistical-studies?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=apstatistics AP Statistics on Khan Academy: Meet one of our writers for AP¨_ Statistics, Jeff. A former high school teacher for 10 years in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jeff taught Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, Introductory Statistics, and AP¨_ Statistics. Today he's hard at work creating new exercises and articles for AP¨_ Statistics. Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 43199 Khan Academy
Calculating Matched Pairs Odds Ratio
 
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This tutorial clarifies the process of calculating a matched pairs odds ratio. Notice the different formula and two by two table set up.
Views: 12533 watsonpho1
Cohort, Case Control, Cross Sectional Studies, Clinical Trials: USMLE* Biostatistics-3
 
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#usmle #biostatistics very short rapid review of 4 major types of clinical study designs *USMLE is a registered trademark of its respective holder. I am in no way affiliated with it. Disclaimer: Not for patient information
Case Control Versus Cohort Studies
 
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In this video , I have discussed about the very frequently asked question of Community medicine , Case Control and Cohort study differentiation points . It has been explained in a tabular form.

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