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Floating vs. Fixed Exchange Rates- Macroeconomics 5.4
 
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Float it or fix it? Mr. Clifford expalins the difference between floating and fixed exchange rates and how countries peg the value of their currency to another currency. Make sure to watch this video first: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DVYVfI81R8
Views: 256539 Jacob Clifford
Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Peripheral Monetary Economy
 
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Workshop "Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing Countries" June 2013 at HTW Berlin. Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Peripheral Monetary Economy by Prof. Rogerio Andrade (UNICAMP)
Exchange rate manipulation, current account imbalances, and monetary policy
 
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Workshop "Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing Countries" June 2013 at HTW Berlin. Exchange rate manipulation, current account imbalances, and monetary policy by Prof. Claus Thomasberger (HTW Berlin)
Exchange Market Pressure in India
 
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Workshop "Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing Countries" June 2013 at HTW Berlin. Exchange Market Pressure in India by Prof. Mandira Sarma (JNU)
Exchange Rates at Issue for Developing Nations
 
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Domenico Lombardi: Developing nations are concerned about currency exchange rates and the economy, but there won't likely be much movement on the issue during the IMF talks.
Pegging emerging currencies in the face of dollar swings
 
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Workshop "Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing Countries" June 2013 at HTW Berlin. Pegging emerging currencies in the face of dollar swings by Prof. Virginie Coudert, Prof. Cécile Couharde and Prof. Valérie Mignon (CEPII)
The Bretton Woods Monetary System (1944 - 1971) Explained in One Minute
 
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After World War 2, it was clear the world needed a new financial system and as such, 44 countries sent delegates to Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to work on just that. The Bretton Woods system lasted from 1944 to 1971, when Nixon ended it and thereby put the final nail in the coffin of not just the Bretton Woods monetary system but also to gold's monetary role. If you've enjoyed the video, please like and comment. To support the channel, give me a minute (see what I did there?) of your time by visiting OneMinuteEconomics.com and reading my message. Bitcoin donations can be sent to 1AFYgM8Cmiiu5HjcXaP5aS1fEBJ5n3VDck and PayPal donations to [email protected], any and all support is greatly appreciated! Oh and I've also started playing around with Patreon, my link is: https://www.patreon.com/oneminuteeconomics Interested in reading a good book? My first book, Wealth Management 2.0 (through which I do my best to help people manage their wealth properly, whether we're talking about someone who has a huge amount of money at his disposal or someone who is still living paycheck to paycheck), can be bought using the links below: Amazon - https://www.amazon.com/Wealth-Management-2-0-Financial-Professionals-ebook/dp/B01I1WA2BK Barnes & Noble - http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/wealth-management-20-andrei-polgar/1124435282?ean=2940153328942 iBooks (Apple) - https://itun.es/us/wYSveb.l Kobo - https://store.kobobooks.com/en-us/ebook/wealth-management-2-0 My second book, the Wall Street Journal and USA Today bestseller The Age of Anomaly (through which I help people prepare for financial calamities and become more financially resilient in general), can be bought using the links below. Amazon - https://www.amazon.com/Age-Anomaly-Spotting-Financial-Uncertainty-ebook/dp/B078SYL5YS Barnes & Noble - https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/the-age-of-anomaly-andrei-polgar/1127084693?ean=2940155383970 iBooks (Apple) - https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/age-anomaly-spotting-financial-storms-in-sea-uncertainty/id1331704265 Kobo - https://www.kobo.com/ww/en/ebook/the-age-of-anomaly-spotting-financial-storms-in-a-sea-of-uncertainty Last but not least, if you'd like to follow me on social media, use one of the links below: https://www.facebook.com/oneminuteeconomics https://twitter.com/andreipolgar https://ro.linkedin.com/in/andrei-polgar-9a11a561
Views: 109094 One Minute Economics
Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates
 
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​This is a video recording of a revision webinar looking at the economics of floating, managed floating and fixed exchange rates. ​​ - - - - - - - - - MORE ABOUT TUTOR2U ECONOMICS: Visit tutor2u Economics for thousands of free study notes, videos, quizzes and more: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics A Level Economics Revision Flashcards: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/alevel-economics-revision-flashcards A Level Economics Example Top Grade Essays: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/exemplar-essays-for-a-level-economics
Views: 5530 tutor2u
How Bretton-Woods Fell Apart
 
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Professor Perry Mehrling discussing the structure and fall of the Bretton-Woods international monetary system. In this system, the dollar was pegged to gold at $35 per ounce, then all other national currencies were pegged to the dollar at fixed exchanges rates. Then SDRs (Special Drawing Rights) could also be used to settle international payments. This system was put into place in 1946 until it fell apart in 1971. The reason it fell apart was because the supply of international dollars was growing faster than the supply of gold. This happened because of US trade deficits, but also because they lent dollars into existence to foreign nations to finance development. But as the supply of dollars started to get much larger than the stock of gold that the US held, it started to put pressure on the dollar exchange rate with gold. We could have revalued gold, but we didn't until it was too late. When countries started demanding payments in gold instead of dollars, Nixon chose to end convertibility into gold. This ended the Bretton-Woods system, and began the era of floating exchange rates, which we still are in today. This was a monumental moment for the world, because on a floating exchange rate, a government is capable of pursuing full employment through a Job Guarantee policy (more on that here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KSw0ROvM6QM&t=344s&index=1&list=PLZJAgo9FgHWZHiVWJyW2KzOWsIresj_N2). Watch the whole lecture here: https://www.coursera.org/learn/money-banking/lecture/iMZY8/the-dollar-system Take the whole course here: https://www.coursera.org/learn/money-banking/home/welcome Follow Deficit Owls on Facebook and Twitter: https://www.facebook.com/DeficitOwls/ https://twitter.com/DeficitOwls
Views: 16771 Deficit Owls
Arguments for and Against Retaining Exchange Rate Regime An Empirical Analysis for Republic of Maced
 
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Arguments for and Against Retaining Exchange Rate Regime An Empirical Analysis for Republic of Macedonia
Views: 1 Research Media
Trilemma
 
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This clip discusses the open economy policy trilemma, which states that any country can choose always only two of the following three desirable options: (1) Monetary policy autonomy to target domestic activity; (2) free capital flows and (3) exchange rate stability. Broadly, the international financial system focused (a) during post-WWII decades on (2) and (3) and (b) during recent decades on (1) and (2). While the exchange rate can act as an automatic stabilizer under (b), it is not clear that maintenance of internal and external balance has become any easier.
MMT:  A Gold Standard Or Fixed Exchange Rate Reduces Domestic Policy Space
 
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Professor L. Randall Wray on why a fixed exchange rate regime (such as a gold standard) reduces domestic policy space. This is because the government must operate its budget and the economy in such a way as to ensure that it grows the amount of reserves it has, or at minimum maintains it. In an exchange rate peg, the government makes purchases in the market using its own currency and the foreign currency in order to manipulate the price away from its market value. Therefore, the government must ensure that it has the foreign currency it's pegged to. Foreign currency comes into the country when the country exports (sells goods in exchange for foreign currency), and so the country must export more than it imports. The way to do this is with austerity, to keep domestic wages low so your citizens can't import, or to limit imports by law. With a gold standard, the government must ensure that it has a steady supply of gold to meet conversion demand. So, if the government allowed the money supply to increase (like by deficit spending) this would increase the demand for conversion, and eat into the government's gold supply. To combat this, the government can sell bonds (and allow the market determine the interest rate) to lock that money up so its citizens don't convert. In both cases, the amount the government can spend is limited. In a fixed currency exchange rate, too much spending will promote employment, cause wages to rise, leading to rising imports, and decreasing the government's foreign currency reserve. In a gold standard, the government must issue bonds when it deficit spends, and must let the market determine the interest rate, potentially leading to a runaway deficit and forced default. But on a floating exchange rate, neither of these can happen: the government can determine how much to spend and what interest rates should be, without fear of defaulting on any promises. See the whole video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KRi9nF8BiA Follow Deficit Owls on Facebook and Twitter: https://www.facebook.com/DeficitOwls/ https://twitter.com/DeficitOwls
Views: 1035 Deficit Owls
What is MANAGED FLOAT REGIME? What does MANAGED FLOAT REGIME mean?
 
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What is MANAGED FLOAT REGIME? What does MANAGED FLOAT REGIME mean? MANAGED FLOAT REGIME meaning - MANAGED FLOAT REGIME definition - MANAGED FLOAT REGIME explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Managed float regime is the current international financial environment in which exchange rates fluctuate from day to day, but central banks attempt to influence their countries' exchange rates by buying and selling currencies. It is also known as a dirty float. In an increasingly integrated world economy, the currency rates impact any given country's economy through the trade balance. In this aspect, almost all currencies are managed since central banks or governments intervene to influence the value of their currencies. According to the International Monetary Fund, as of 2014, 82 countries and regions used a managed float, or 43% of all countries, constituting a plurality amongst exchange rate regime types.
Views: 37 The Audiopedia
Mod-01 Lec-05 Floating and Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes
 
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International Finance by Dr. Arun K. Misra, Department of Management, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3308 nptelhrd
China’s exchange rate policy over the past decade
 
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Ben Bernanke explains the recent changes in China’s exchange rate and economic policy and why they are positive for the country’s economy. https://www.brookings.edu/events/gaining-currency-the-rise-of-the-renminbi/ On September 23, the Global Economy and Development program at Brookings hosted the launch of “Gaining Currency: The Rise of the Renminbi,” featuring the book’s author, Brookings senior fellow Eswar Prasad. Subscribe! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=BrookingsInstitution Follow Brookings on social media! Facebook: http://www.Facebook.com/Brookings Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/BrookingsInst Instagram: http://www.Instagram.com/brookingsinst LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/com/company/the-brookings-institution
Views: 1484 Brookings Institution
What is BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM? What does BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM mean? BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM meaning
 
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What is BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM? What does BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM mean? BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM meaning - BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM definition - BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and Japan in the mid-20th century. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states. The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate (± 1 percent) by tying its currency to gold and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments. Also, there was a need to address the lack of cooperation among other countries and to prevent competitive devaluation of the currencies as well. Preparing to rebuild the international economic system while World War II was still raging, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, also known as the Bretton Woods Conference. The delegates deliberated during 1–22 July 1944, and signed the Bretton Woods agreement on its final day. Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, these accords established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which today is part of the World Bank Group. The United States, which controlled two thirds of the world's gold, insisted that the Bretton Woods system rest on both gold and the US dollar. Soviet representatives attended the conference but later declined to ratify the final agreements, charging that the institutions they had created were "branches of Wall Street." These organizations became operational in 1945 after a sufficient number of countries had ratified the agreement. On 15 August 1971, the United States unilaterally terminated convertibility of the US dollar to gold, effectively bringing the Bretton Woods system to an end and rendering the dollar a fiat currency. This action, referred to as the Nixon shock, created the situation in which the US dollar became a reserve currency used by many states. At the same time, many fixed currencies (such as the pound sterling, for example) also became free-floating. The political basis for the Bretton Woods system was in the confluence of two key conditions: the shared experiences of two World Wars, with the sense that failure to deal with economic problems after the first war had led to the second; and the concentration of power in a small number of states.
Views: 16629 The Audiopedia
Secrets of Economic Growth | Ricardo Hausmann
 
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http://www.weforum.org/ Economic Complexity is like a game of Scrabble, says Ricardo Hausmann. The more letters you have, the more words you can make; the more capabilities a country has, the more diverse products it can generate. In this video for the World Economic Forum Hausmann, from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, uses metaphors and metrics to explain the gap between rich and poor countries. Click on the video for an in depth analysis, or read key quotes below On the growing gap between rich and poor “The secrets of economic growth is the question that Alan Smith started economics with: what's the origin of the wealth of nations and why are some countries rich and other countries poor? The only thing is that when he wrote “The Wealth of Nations”, the richest country in the world was probably the Netherlands, and was about four times richer than the poorest country of the world." “Today, the richest countries in the world are about 250 times richer than the poorest countries in the world. You might say well, what’s problem of the difference incomes between countries? It’s not only between countries. Within the same country - with the same exchange rates, same interest rates, same tax regimes et cetera - you have differences in productivity per worker of about a factor of 10. That's a truly puzzling result.” On growth and productivity “If you think about technology as the explanation for these humongous difference is in productivity, you have to ask yourself why technology doesn’t diffuse. The problem is that in order to implement technology there is a crucial ingredient that at some stage in the production you will need: “know-how”. You need the ability of the brain to do things, something that the brain must be trained to do it and that takes a long time. The diffusion of that is complicated.” “In order to get our minds around “know-how”, I'm going to make a stylised comparison between a traditional Inuit - and here is the Inuit engaged in food production, here in housing construction, and here engaged in transportation - to this guy sitting by a computer wearing glasses. Who has more know-how? Well, the guy uses glasses and doesn't have a clue as to how to make glasses. He has a headset and a computer and doesn't know how to make those things either.” “If I put this guy in the Arctic he will either freeze or starve to death, so there is no practical way that you can say that he has more know-how than the Inuit. But it is possible to say that the society to which this guy belongs knows how to do more things than the society that the Inuit belongs to - not because this society is a bunch of geniuses, but because in this society there are some people who know how to make glasses, know how to make headsets or know how to make other things.” “It's the diffusion of that know-how in society that underpins the capacity to know how to do more things and more complicated things. That doesn't mean the secret of progress is to have large companies. This is a very big chicken company. But it’s not a very complex company, as if you move workers around not much will happen to the production process. But you cannot do that in an orchestra. Here each worker is contributing a different bit of know-how to the whole. So, as you need the whole set of instruments to make the symphony, it's not what you know, it's the network of know-how to which you are connected.” On Scrabble and connecting capabilities So it's being connected to that network, all these other inputs, that allows someone to mobilise all that know-how and to generate productivity. I am going to redescribe this as the game of Scrabble. In Scrabble you have to make words. You are given letters, so think of words as products, words are services. Think of letters as bits of “Know-how.” In order to make something you have to string the bits of know-how together - the same way that you need the different instruments to make a symphony. "If you only have one kind of letter, you're mostly going to make one kind of word. But if I give you more letters, you get an increasing number of words diversification of what you do and longer words, more complex products. For example the most diverse country in the world is Germany, and there are very few other countries that are able to do the things that Germany is able to do. While the poorest countries in the world make few things and they make things that everybody knows how to make. They make shorter words. So the more letters you have, the more complex words."
Views: 44670 World Economic Forum
Introduction to nominal, real and trade-weighted exchange rates
 
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In this video you will learn how to define and measure nominal, real and trade-weighted exchange rates. Source: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2007/09/basics.htm Further reading: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2007/09/pdf/basics.pdf
Views: 882 EnhanceTuition
Can the Free Market End Global Poverty? Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz vs. NYU's William Easterly
 
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Development economists Joseph Stiglitz and William Easterly debate whether developing nations need more government or more markets. _____ Subscribe to our YouTube channel: http://youtube.com/reasontv Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Reason.Magaz... Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/reason Subscribe to our podcast at iTunes: https://goo.gl/az3a7a Reason is the planet's leading source of news, politics, and culture from a libertarian perspective. Go to reason.com for a point of view you won't get from legacy media and old left-right opinion magazines. _____ There has been a staggering reduction in global poverty over the last four decades. In China, sustained rates of economic growth have lifted 800 million people out of extreme poverty. Ethiopia, a country once synonymous with famine, has grown faster than China while nearly halving its poverty rate over the last 15 years. Across the planet, developing countries large and small, from India to Ghana, have seen astonishing successes in alleviating poverty, exceeding even the most optimistic economic forecasts. How did this extraordinary shift happen? Do poor countries need more markets, or more government? Two of the world's best-known development economists, Joseph Stiglitz and William Easterly, met on August 27, 2018, at the SubCulture Theater in Manhattan's East Village to debate these questions. The event was sponsored by the Soho Forum, a monthly debate series partnered with Reason. Soho Forum Director Gene Epstein moderated. Stiglitz, a Nobel laureate and former chief economist of the World Bank, is a professor at Columbia University. He credits thoughtful and aggressive government intervention for the rising fortunes of China and Ethiopia. In his view, markets are a tool to stimulate economic growth—but not always the most effetive one. "You always are going to have a mixture of governments and markets," he says. "And the only success is going to be where you get the right mixture." Easterly is a professor of economics at New York University and a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. He argues that China only achieved stellar growth rates after the Communist Party started to recede from economic life and created a space for markets to thrive. Likewise, Ethiopia prospered only after the disintegration of a repressive Communist regime, known as the Derg, paved the way for widespread privatization of industry and commerce. Produced by Todd Krainin.
Views: 11169 ReasonTV
Globalization and Trade and Poverty: Crash Course Economics #16
 
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What is globalization? Is globalization a good thing or not. Well, I have an answer that may not surprise you: It's complicated. This week, Jacob and Adriene will argue that globalization is, in aggregate, good. Free trade and globalization tend to provide an overall benefit, and raises average incomes across the globe. The downside is that it isn't good for every individual in the system. In some countries, manufacturing jobs move to places where labor costs are lower. And some countries that receive the influx of jobs aren't prepared to deal with it, from a regulatory standpoint. Anyway, Jacob and Adriene can explain the whole thing to you in 10 minutes. *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Eric Kitchen, Jessica Wode, Jeffrey Thompson, Steve Marshall, Moritz Schmidt, Robert Kunz, Tim Curwick, Jason A Saslow, SR Foxley, Elliot Beter, Jacob Ash, Christian, Jan Schmid, Jirat, Christy Huddleston, Daniel Baulig, Chris Peters, Anna-Ester Volozh, Ian Dundore, Caleb Weeks -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 633429 CrashCourse
How Does Monetary Policy Affect The Economy?
 
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Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money often targeting a level for interest rates for the purpose of promoting economic growth and price stability. For more lessons and lecture notes go to www.gaksu.com
Views: 4406 cedric chehab
Investors in Nigeria seek clarity on new guidelines
 
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Investors in Nigeria are still anxiously waiting on the country's Central Bank to issue the guidelines on a flexible exchange rate regime it announced last month to ease the country forex crisis. Africa's largest economy has been battling to conserve its foreign reserves and reduce the pressure on its currency following a significant drop in government revenue because of low oil prices. Deji Badmus has this report.
Views: 972 CGTN Africa
The U.S. Macroeconomy: Recent Developments and Policy Challenges; a lecture with Dr. Andrea Bubula
 
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Dr. Andrea Bubula examines and critically interprets recent macroeconomic events and policies in the United States. First, he briefly discusses the causes and the effects of the financial crisis; second, he focuses on the current macroeconomic conditions, with a particular focus on the present policy debate on the trade-off between fiscal consolidation and job creation. Andrea Bubula's expertise is in applied open-economy macroeconomics and finance. His research focuses on the choice of the exchange rate regime and nominal anchor across countries and over time. He has also examined the determinants of interest rate differentials in developing countries. Dr. Bubula earned his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University in 2004 and holds a 'Laurea' and 'Dottorato di Ricerca' from Universita' di Roma, La Sapienza. He has worked at the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and was a Fellow of International Affairs at Yale University. In 2008 he received the Columbia University Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching. Alliance Program Events
Views: 1227 Columbia
The Most Worthless (very low) Currencies in Asia
 
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A currency is money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange. The UN recognizes 180 national currencies as legal tender. Some Asian nations have paper bills pegged at over several thousands for just a dollar. Asia has many least valuable currencies than any other continent. While the value of some of these currencies is deliberately kept low for specific reasons, value of most of them is low due to poor leadership. Here are the 7 most worthless currencies in the world as of 2014, with exchange rate in Unite States dollar. 7) South Korean Won (1 US dollar = 1,101.49) South Korea has deliberately manipulated its monetary policy to keep its money cheap. This makes the nation’s exports cheaper than those of competitors like Japan. How come the home to global giants like Kia, Samsung and Hyundai has a currency worth .0008 US$? It’s simple. They like it that way. They deliberately manipulate monetary policy to keep their money cheap which makes their exports cheaper than those from competitors like Japan. 6) Iraqi Dinar (1 US dollar = 1,154.44) Plunging oil prices and terrorist activities are impacting the value of Iraqi Dinars negatively. The oil-rich nation is basically enmeshed in a brutal civil war without any cohesive social fabric to pull it back together. It’s not looking good for the Iraqi dinar revaluation. 5) Cambodian Riel (1 US dollar = 4,055.64) Cambodia is still very poor; average annual income is just $946 and malnutrition among children is widespread. Although Cambodia is rich in natural resources, years of war and internal conflict have made it a poor country. The popular tourist destination’s future looks brighter. Tourism accounts for 17% of the Gross Domestic Product. There’s oil being found. 4) Laotian Kip (1 US dollar = 8,063.87) Around three-fourths of the work force of Laos is engaged in growing rice. More than a third of the nation’s population lives below the global poverty line of US $1.25 PPP a day. Lao economy is growing quickly but ¾ of the work force is tied up in growing rice. The government’s goal to come off from the UN Development Program’s list of least-developed countries by 2020 is achievable. 3) Indonesian Rupiah (1 US dollar = 12,869.98) Awful infrastructure, rampant corruption and foot-dragging bureaucrats are affecting the value of the Indonesian Rupiah. The archipelago nation subsidizes gas prices so much, it doesn’t have enough left over to build modern infrastructure. 2) Vietnam Dong (1 US dollar = 21,385.80) Vietnam is astonishingly exotic and utterly compelling nation. The value of the Dong is kept low to boost exports. The nation has been, for much of its history, a predominantly agricultural civilization based on wet rice cultivation. Deep poverty has declined significantly in Vietnam. The dong is kept low to boost exports and everyone seems to like it that way. 1) Iran Rial (1 US dollar = 26,954.18) Asia’s number least valuable currency is Iran Rial. Iran is hit really hard by the international sanctions over the nuclear program. This West Asian nation’s economy is a mixed economy. Around 60 percent of the economy is centrally planned. Iranian president said recently that the country has the potential to become one of the ten largest economies in the world within the next three decades. You can Like, Comment and Subscribe Here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCdV4gLyfdkU03FYM4-pjq5g You can also visit Here: https://www.facebook.com/movieentertaiment/
Views: 2159 Giza TOP 10
CAYMAN still the WEALTHIEST NATION in the CARIBBEAN - This should be JAMAICA - I will tell you why
 
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Please Consider Supporting my Channel by becoming a Patron if you appreciate the Content: https://www.patreon.com/teachdem Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQrRxeXJ5R_qQnpxf1IlePQ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/accounts/edit/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/dem_teach Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/teach.dem.583 The report, which examines the economies of 13 Caribbean countries, notes that in terms of wealth per capita, “the Cayman Islands stands as the region’s wealthiest nation with a GDP per capita of US$54,338 while Guyana stands as the poorest on a per capita basis with a figure of US$3,596.” So why does the Cayman Islands continue to perform well when other Caribbean islands are faltering? Moody’s Investment Services credit rating analysis of December 2013 is instructive and still holds true. Affirming the Aa3 Cayman government bond rating, the report read: “…the country’s strong institutions further support the rating. A long history of policy consensus and a sensible macroeconomic approach explains its high economic development and still low debt burden. “Cayman scores highly and outperforms most of its peers in such measures as the World Bank’s governance indicators. The UK’s Aa1 rating provides further institutional support through oversight and ultimate judicial review.” The Caymans’ economy is built on three sectors namely – tourism, financial services and infrastructure development. The country is also assisted by a 0% tax rate regime on both companies and individuals and there is no capital gains or property taxes. This has attracted many wealthy people and blue chip companies that prosper from a fixed exchange rate and buoyant economy. The country has a population of around 56,000 with financial services accounting for 67% of its GDP. It is the world’s sixth largest international financial centre. It is characterized by low crime, political and economic stability.
Views: 9844 Teach Dem
International Transmissions of Monetary Shocks
 
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Speaker: Xuehui Han, Asian Development Bank. Discussant: Mohit Desai, NIPFP. http://macrofinance.nipfp.org.in/meetings.html#RM201512 The well-known trilemma theory states that the nominal exchange rate regime plays a crucial role in a country’s ability to pursue monetary policy, that is, for its domestic objectives independent from other countries’ influences. In particular, a flexible exchange rate is required for an independent monetary policy. Capital controls may help a country with a fixed exchange rate to gain some policy space but the effect of capital controls is leaky and often short-lived. Xuehui Han presents a paper which shows a flexible nominal exchange rate alone does not help a country to gain monetary policy independence. On the other hand, capital controls are more effective in improving a country’s monetary policy independence. Mohit Desai discusses the paper.
Views: 129 nipfpmf
The Question of a Fixed Exchange Rate for Jamaica- Part 3 of 13
 
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Caribbean Policy Research Institute (CaPRI) provides research for an informed debate as to whether the country should change its currency regime to some form of fixed exchange-rate. Important findings were that the real decision was not whether to install a fixed or floating exchange rate for Jamaica, but whether the fiscal and monetary undergirding of the country is balanced and stable. If unstable, Jamaica will face repeated devaluations.
Views: 579 capricaribbean
USA: LAWRENCE SUMMERS TO MEET WORLDS FINANCE MINISTERS
 
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English/Nat XFA U-S Treasury chief Lawrence Summers heads for Montreal Tuesday to meet with the finance ministers from the world's wealthiest nations. At issue, he says, are ongoing efforts to aid the world's poorest nations and to encourage recovery in the global economy. Before leaving Washington Tuesday, Summers offered a quick preview of the Montreal summit. It will be the second such meeting of the so-called Group of 20 -- finance ministers and central bank presidents from the world's wealthiest countries and developing nations. High on the agenda, says Summers, is a U-S led plan to deal with future financial crises and a look at the U-S role in the global economy under a new president. SOUNDBITE: (English) "I expect that in this international forum the situation of the United States economy and the path of U.S. policy in the future, and the question of whether the United States economy will continue be a strong engine in the global economy, will be something that will certainly come up." SUPER CAPTION: Lawrence Summers, U.S. Treasury Secretary Also likely to be on the table is a review of economic recovery efforts in other regions. Summers says emerging market economies are seeing that recovery take hold. But he also signaled U-S concern for practices that still place struggling economies at risk. SOUNDBITE: (English) "Countries' choices of exchange rate regimes are centrally important to their own stability as well as to that of the system as a whole. And some approaches, such as fix but adjustable regimes, have now shown themselves to be particularly susceptible to speculative attack, and thus to raise a country's vulnerability to financial crises." SUPER CAPTION: Lawrence Summers, U.S. Treasury Secretary Summers says efforts toward debt relief and easing heavily indebted nations into the global economy are key issues up for discussion in Montreal. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/ae270afc3715ab66448d6233c04c449b Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 6 AP Archive
European Central Bank head Mario Draghi comments on euro exchange rate debate
 
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1. Wide pan of the head of the European Central Bank (ECB) Mario Draghi meeting the President of Spanish Parliament Jesus Posada and shaking hands 2. Medium shot of Draghi, Posada and the Governor of the Spanish National Bank Luis Linde 3. Close up of Draghi 4. Wide shot of Draghi, Posada and Linde 5. Mid of Posada and Draghi at press conference 6. Wide of press conference 7. Wide of journalists attending press conference 8. SOUNDBITE (English) Mario Draghi, President of the European Central Bank "Let me say just one more thing about the comments about the exchange rate which are now frequently made by lots of people. I think that when they are made by people who are not immediately related to monetary policy, some of these commentaries are inappropriate or they are fruitless." 9. Mid of journalist asking question 10. SOUNDBITE (English) Mario Draghi, President of the European Central Bank "They are inappropriate if these comments are meant to instruct the ECB to achieve a certain exchange rate. This would mean violating the independence of the ECB and forgetting that the ECB's mandate is not to set the level of the European exchange rate, but to set price stability in the medium term." 11. Mid of journalist asking question (UPSOUND) 12. Wide of press conference ending STORYLINE: European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi criticised politicians at a news briefing on Tuesday, telling them it was "inappropriate" and "fruitless" for them to push the ECB to influence the euro's exchange rate. Draghi told journalists in Madrid that there had been "comments about the exchange rate from a lot of people" and that they were "inappropriate" if they were "meant to instruct the ECB to achieve a certain exchange rate." Several European leaders have highlighted the increase in the value of the euro as a potential problem, with French President Francois Hollande going as far to say the Eurozone should target an exchange rate for its currency. The ECB is forbidden by treaty from taking instructions from politicians. Draghi said the bank doesn't target a particular exchange rate but was monitoring the stronger euro's effects on the economy. The Group of Seven leading industrial nations, which includes the US, Japan and Germany, warned on Tuesday that volatile movements in exchange rates could adversely hit the global economy. There have been increasing concerns around the world that countries might manipulate their exchange rates through their domestic economic policies in order to gain an edge. A lower foreign exchange rate can make a country's exports cheaper, thereby boosting growth. But one currency can fall only if another rises - which in turn will create trade problems for other countries. This process could spark a 'currency war' - a destabilising battle where countries compete against one another to get the lowest exchange rate. In a statement published on Tuesday on the Bank of England website, the G-7 finance ministers and central bankers insisted they remained committed to exchange rates driven by the market - not government or central bank policies - and would consult closely when it comes to sharp movements in foreign currency markets. The statement comes ahead of a meeting in Moscow at the weekend of finance ministers from the world's top 20 industrial and developing countries. In light of the recent swings in the foreign exchange markets, notably relating to the Japanese yen, currency issues were expected to feature heavily during the Group of 20 discussions in the Russian capital. Much of the recent volatility in foreign exchange markets has been a by-product of developments affecting the Japanese yen, which dropped Tuesday to its lowest level against the dollar since May 2010. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/70e2f2d379b6fd9db88cc00402c59c2f Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 318 AP Archive
The Question of a Fixed Exchange Rate for Jamaica- Part 7 of 13
 
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Caribbean Policy Research Institute (CaPRI) provides research for an informed debate as to whether the country should change its currency regime to some form of fixed exchange-rate. Important findings were that the real decision was not whether to install a fixed or floating exchange rate for Jamaica, but whether the fiscal and monetary undergirding of the country is balanced and stable. If unstable, Jamaica will face repeated devaluations.
Views: 271 capricaribbean
The collapse of Venezuela, explained
 
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The country is in chaos, but its leaders aren't going anywhere. Correction at 1:58: It’s been brought to our notice that the Supreme Court tried to strip the country’s National Assembly of its powers in March 2017 and not 2016. We regret the error. For more on the Supreme Court ruling: https://www.vox.com/world/2017/5/1/15408828/venezuela-protests-maduro-parliament-supreme-court-crisis Sources: 0:56 https://tradingeconomics.com/venezuela/inflation-cpi , https://tradingeconomics.com/venezuela/consumer-price-index-cpi , http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/[email protected]/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD/VEN?year=2017 , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_in_Venezuela#/media/File:1998_to_2013_Venezuela_Murder_Rate.png https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-economy-forex-idUSKBN1AP2LM 1:25 https://www.scribd.com/document/354981596/Datanalisis-Informe-Omnibus-Julio-2017-ODH-Consultores#from_embed (Page 22) http://www.datanalisis.com/ 1:54 https://www.wsj.com/articles/maduro-s-allies-stack-venezuelas-supreme-court-1450912005 3:27 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=24432 3:44 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venezuela_Poverty_Rate_1997_to_2013.png 4:00 https://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21720289-over-past-year-74-venezuelans-lost-average-87kg-weight-how 4:40 https://www.cato.org/research/troubled-currencies?tab=venezuela Subscribe to our channel! http://goo.gl/0bsAjO The collapse of Venezuela and President Maduro's rise to dictatorship. Venezuela was once the richest country in Latin America. It has the largest known oil reserves in the world. And its democratic government was once praised world wide. But today, Venezuela’s democratic institutions and its economy are in shambles. The country has the highest inflation in the world, making food and medicine inaccessible to most Venezuelans. Over the last four years, its GDP has fallen 35%, which is a sharper drop than the one seen during the Great Depression in the US. The country’s murder rate has surpassed that of the most dangerous cities in the world. These conditions have sparked months of protests against the president, Nicolas Maduro. And it’s easy to see why: the country has become measurably worse since his election in 2013. Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out http://www.vox.com to get up to speed on everything from Kurdistan to the Kim Kardashian app. Check out our full video catalog: http://goo.gl/IZONyE Follow Vox on Twitter: http://goo.gl/XFrZ5H Or on Facebook: http://goo.gl/U2g06o
Views: 3520362 Vox
Public Lecture by Nobel Laureate Prof. Joseph Stiglitz - July 5, 2016
 
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Prof. Joseph E. Stiglitz, Columbia University, recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001), delivered a public lecture at IIITB on July 5, 2016. Title: Creating a Learning Society: A New Approach to Growth, Development, and Social Progress About the talk: It has long been recognized that an improved standard of living results from advances in technology, not from the accumulation of capital. It has also become clear that what separates developed from less-developed countries is not just a gap in resources or output but a gap in knowledge. In fact, the pace at which developing countries grow is largely a function of the pace at which they close that gap. Closing knowledge gaps and helping laggards learn are central to growth and development, and creating a learning society is crucial to sustain improved living standards. But the production of knowledge differs from that of other goods, and market economies alone typically do not produce and transmit knowledge efficiently. Well-designed government trade and industrial policies can help create a learning society, and poorly designed intellectual property regimes can retard learning. While policy makers must realize that virtually every government policy has effects, both positive and negative, on learning, many standard policy prescriptions, especially those associated with "neoliberal" doctrines focusing on static resource allocations, impede learning. Among the provocative implications are that free trade may lead to stagnation whereas broad-based industrial protection and exchange rate interventions may bring benefits - not just to the industrial sector, but to the entire economy. About the speaker: Joseph E. Stiglitz is University Professor at Columbia University, and a co-chair of the High-Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress at the OECD. A recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001), he is also a former Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the World Bank, and a former Chairman of the US President's Council of Economic Advisers. In 2000, Professor Stiglitz founded the Initiative for Policy Dialogue, a think tank on international development based at Columbia University. Based on academic citations, he is the 4th most influential economist in the world today and is known for his pioneering work on asymmetric information, income distribution, asset risk management, corporate governance, and international trade. The author of numerous books, his recent titles include The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them (2015). His book The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe will be published in August.
Views: 8836 IIIT Bangalore
Floating Exchange Effect on China
 
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Floating Exchange Effect on China More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=vrGNXAGmfCM
Views: 28295 Khan Academy
Currency Wars: Exchange Intervention in a Floating World
 
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Macroeconomics Presentation: In order to expedite recovery from the 2008 economic crisis, countries are devaluing their currency to make their exports more affordable and competitive. This paradoxical 'fight to be weak' has escalated into currency wars, which have potential to develop into trade wars and stifle world-wide economic growth. This video addresses three currency war cases in Switzerland, Brazil and China, and defines related macroeconomic factors. Here's a link to the transcript and citations if you'd like to follow through on any of the themes: http://brienne.yolasite.com/currency-wars-by-brienne-thomson.php
Views: 3073 Brienne Thomson
Floating Exchange Rate in Myanmar
 
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Floating Exchange Rate in Myanmar http://www.myanmartalk.com
Views: 833 MyanmarTalk
International regimes and the world order part-II (CH-03)
 
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Subject : International Politics Course : BA (Hons) Political Science Keyword : SWAYAMPRABHA
Exchange Rate Still in Focus
 
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Follow us on TWITTER: http://twitter.com/cnforbiddennews Like us on FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/chinaforbiddennews Next week U.S.-China strategic economic dialogue will be held in Washington D.C. and RMB exchange rate is still in the focus. Geithner, the U.S. Treasury Secretary hopes that RMB appreciation will accelerate. Scholars believe however, that the Chinese government will not let go of the RMB exchange rate. "US-China Strategic Economic Dialogue" led in its 3rd round by US Secretary of State and Geithner, and Chinese Vice Premier Wang Qishan, will work on issues of bilateral relations development. Geithner said recently that he would urge Chinese officials to implement a series of economic reforms, including introducing more flexible exchange rates driven by market forces, and improving U.S. companies investing environment. Geithner also said the focus of this talk will be the currency exchange rate of RMB to USD. RMB appreciation is good to curb China』s inflation, also it can prevent expanding of real estate bubble in China. Chinese leaders also recognize this. U.S. economist Ho Qinglian said RMB appreciation can only curb foreign exchange reserves, reducing domestic money deposited. Most likely it can inhibit the export, but effect on price increases is limited. Geithner acknowledged that since last June, China has allowed the rate of RMB to USD to increase by about 5%. U.S. congressmen and manufacturers believe RMB value was down by as much as 40%, making Chinese goods on markets very cheap. Huang Yiping, an economist in China's Macroeconomic Research Centre in Peking Univ. told Wall Street Journal that Chinese leaders still tightly control RMB appreciation with 0.5% a month on average. He believes that RMB could float freely with conditions letting the market determine its level. Central bankers agree with his views, but senior leaders are in control of the decisions. Why the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) top levels do not free the exchange rate? Buddhist Hermitage, a politeconomy critic believes the fundamental issue is that only CCP and China out of all countries does not use free exchange rate in international trades, causing trade imbalances and disrupting global economic order. The Chinese government demands every penny earned overseas and then prints more money. The government thus owns a large foreign exchange reserve as a sovereign fund. Buddhist Hermitage said, "From this we know how China's foreign exchange system exists. China (CCP) is reluctant to free foreign exchange system, unwilling to let the people hold foreign exchange. CCP wants to use the money to maintain its rule, related to its fate. On foreign exchange rate China (CCP) is unwilling to compromise and tries to find ways to maintain its political power." Some people think RMB appreciation will greatly affect China's exports, so they go against it. Huang Yiping said that to make export enterprises have strong growth, one must learn to produce higher value-added products, or move production from the coastal area to mainland where wage level is lower. This is the approach to achieve continuous growth. NTD reporters Song Feng and Zhou Ping. 《神韵》2011世界巡演新亮点 http://www.ShenYunPerformingArts.org/
Views: 178 ChinaForbiddenNews
The IMF and Capital Controls: Policy Implications - Q&A
 
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In the past, short-term and speculative capital inflows have made it more difficult for governments to manage their most important macroeconomic policies, including monetary and exchange rate policies; and rapid outflows have contributed greatly to economic and financial crises in many countries. Reza Baqir — deputy chief in the IMF's Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, which has responsibility for consistency in IMF policy advice across countries (including on capital controls issues) — and Mark Weisbrot, co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, participated in a discussion of these issues and implications for IMF policies.
Dirc Zahlmann Explains the KaratCoinBank and KBC Eco-system - Karatbars World Tour London 2018
 
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Welcome to the revolution of gold and crypto banking! To acquire the highest grade gold bullion on the market please create a karatbars account here: www.karatbars.com/?s=anuhaziowl To acquire the KaratGold Coin (KBC) or KaratCoinBank token (KCB) please create an account with KaratGold here: www.karatgold.sg/?s=anuhaziowl For more information please visit: www.paper2gold.net The Karatgold Coin cryptocurrency has taken another step ahead in cryptocurrency innovation. Karatbars International CEO Harald Seiz announced that the company will open, Karatcoin Bank one of the world’s first cryptocurrency banks. The Karatgold Coin, which Karatbars made available in a March 2018 ICO, already distinguished itself from other ICOs by becoming the world’s first cryptocurrency backed by gold. “Karatbars acquired a fully licensed bank in Miami that will be fully operational by mid-June,” Seiz said in a televised press release. “The name of the bank is Karatcoin Bank. With this bank, we are one of the first crypto banks in the world with a full license.” Creating Karatcoin Bank serves as an important part of the foundation of Karatbar’s plans to develop Karatgold Coin into a mainstream payment system. The licensing is extremely important in achieving that end. It provides security and backing for not just Karatcoin Bank, but the currency itself. Holders are able to rely on the Karatcoin Bank to service their needs, and, therefore, can rely on Karatgold Coin as a payment method. Because Karatgold Coin holders will now have direct access to banking services using the cryptocurrency itself, they can use their Karatgold Coins in many of the same ways as fiat currencies. A major disadvantage of other existing cryptocurrencies, like bitcoin, is that holders lack the ability to use it as a means of exchange. Though bitcoin’s technology has opened the door to tremendous innovation and it serves as a fiat currency alternative, users must change it into fiat currency before they can deposit any of it in a bank. For bitcoin, this is a hurdle to widespread acceptance. Karatcoin Bank provides the solution. Holders of the cryptocurrency now have a place to bank with it. As a result, more people become willing to do business using the coin. This makes the coin viable as a stable means of exchange, savings, and investment. Like all currencies, crypto or fiat, Karatgold’s value depends on demand. Unlike fiat currencies, the supply is limited, so there can be no inflation, as with fiat currencies, where governments continually print more money to service their enormous debts. Karatgold, then, becomes an inflation-protected instrument, and as demand for the currency increases, so does its intrinsic value. Intrinsic value is what Karatgold is all about. Karatbars CEO Harald Seiz, a German finance entrepreneur and author of The Future of Money, saw the need for cryptocurrencies to have the backing of hard assets. With gold backing the Karatgold Coin, people worldwide can rely on its value. When the value is pegged to gold, it can be accepted in any country without fear that exchange rates will negatively affect transactions. A person in Europe can exchange Karatgold Coins for Asian products, with both parties knowing they cannot be hurt by currency fluctuations. Bitcoin’s use as a means of exchange has been destroyed by its instability. Though speculative investors may love it, how can people exchange it for goods? If the value plummets, the seller has essentially given away a discount. If it surges, the buyer overpays. Karatgold, by aligning its value with gold, offers the way for a stable cryptocurrency that becomes a practical form of money. With the opening of Karatcoin Bank, Karatgold stands to enjoy a rise in acceptance and value. It is already used by gold traders in Asia for hundreds of millions of dollars in daily trades, as well as by many of the 480,000 Karatbars customers who own Karatbar’s CashGold products. With the fully licensed Karatcoin Bank, the coin’s popularity will spread. Don't miss out! KBC & KCB Donations welcome @ 0x5b6691cc4eee14b9250a37edd637a3032409381c
Views: 259 Zetetic Zen
Venezuela to implement dual exchange rate system
 
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(9 Mar 2016) RESTRICTION SUMMARY: AP CLIENTS ONLY AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY Caracas, Venezuela – 09 March 2016 1. Miguel Perez Abad, Economic Vice President, arriving to news conference 2. Abad and other Economic government officers taking their seats 3. Miguel Perez Abad, Economy Vice Minister, ( Black suit, yellow tie, centre), Jose Khan, Deputy President, Central Bank of Venezuela,( Abad's right hand), Jesus Farias, Exterior Commerce Minister( right hand to Khan), Rodolfo Medina, Finance Minister, ( left hand to Abad), Eulogio del Pino, Oil Minister ( Left hand to Medina), Rodolfo Marco Torres, Food Minister ( left hand to Del Pino), during the presser 4. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Miguel Perez Abad, Economy Vice Minister, "Two types of changes are contemplated to implement this new system. A protected type of change, called the DIPRO is directed only to goods and services and remittances identified as priorities. It will begin with a quote of 10 bolivars per dollar, and gradually will be adjusted, considering the social impacts. This rate, this rate of change, seeks to preserve and protect the Venezuelan family, the productive sectors, especially the food sector and the pharmacy sector, which are covered under the plan 50 (the plan 50 is the last economic plan proposed by President Nicolas Maduro)." 5. Audience listening to Abad's speech 6. Various of Abad and government officers, signing the: "new exchange agreement" 7. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Miguel Perez Abad, Economy Vice Minister, "A second type of exchange, which we have named as the type of complementary change the DICOM, which will apply to all transactions not included under the protected type of change. It will fluctuate according to the economic dynamics of the country. One system, two exchange rates." 8. Abad and other Economic government officers, during the press conference 9. SOUNDBITE (Spanish) Miguel Perez Abad, Economy Vice Minister, "It is very important to remember that Venezuela is in emergency, economic emergency that Venezuela has no solvency problems, we mean, Venezuela has sufficient assets and capabilities to succeed, we have a problem of cash flow, which forces us to create and recreate how we will develop the national economy." 10. Wide of Abad and other government officers, during the press conference 11. Various of Abad and others leaving 12. Venezuela central bank exterior of building STORYLINE: Venezuelan financial authorities announced Wednesday that the country has decided on a dual exchange rate system as a way to deal with the current cash flow issue, but stressed that it is not facing solvency problems. Vice president of economics, Miguel Perez Abad, said during a press conference in Caracas, that one of the exchange rate systems will operate with a fixed rate of 10 bolivars to the dollar, while the second will fluctuate according to the dynamics of the economy. The adjustments of the exchange rates, among other things, are the results of low oil prices, which finances 94 percent of the income received by the country's exports, Abad said. The DIPRO system, or so-called protected exchange will be used mainly for food, medicine, raw materials and other products and services deemed essential. Abad said the second system, known as DICOM, would be a complementary exchange system that would fluctuate according to the "country's economic dynamics," but offered few details. Venezuela's economy shrank 5.7 percent last year while shortages of basic goods multiplied, adding to social tensions and undermining support for President Nicolas Maduro, whose socialist party lost congressional elections in December by a landslide. =========================================================== Clients are reminded: You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/b2886316d1627231fa3bf30639150236 Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 59 AP Archive
Did the Indian Capital Controls Work as a Tool of Macroeconomic Policy?
 
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Did the Indian capital controls work as a tool for macroeconomic policy, Ila Patnaik and Ajay Shah. IMF Economic Review, page 439--464, volume 60, 2012. http://goo.gl/ySzfEj In 2010 and 2011, there has been a fresh wave of interest in capital controls. India is one of the few large countries with a complex system of capital controls, and hence offers an opportunity to assess the extent to which these help achieve goals of macroeconomic and financial policy. We find that the capital controls were associated with poor governance, were unable to sustain the erstwhile exchange rate regime, and did not support financial stability. India's experience is thus inconsistent with the revisionist view of capital controls. Macroeconomic policy in India has moved away from the erstwhile strategies, towards greater exchange rate flexibility combined with capital account liberalisation.
Views: 712 nipfpmf
What Is Devaluation Of A Currency
 
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In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a countrys currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket. Currency devaluation and revaluation federal reserve of currency on the economy is a global consumer's delight forbes. Currency devaluation in developing countriesdifference between & depreciation budgeting money. Oct 10, 2016 with the presidential election coming up in november candidates are firing at 3 reasons why countries devalue their currency devaluation is a deliberate downward adjustment to value of country's relative another currency, group currencies or standard. Currency devaluation and revaluation dictionary definition of 4. Googleusercontent search. A currency devalues when its value declines in relation to one or more other a is considered devalued it loses relative currencies the foreign exchange market. What is currency devaluation and revaluation? Worldatlas. It is usually aug 19, 2015 with no international (or domestic) agreements on what constitutes currency manipulation, it's time world leaders take action devaluation one of the most dramatic even traumatic measures economic policy that a government may undertake. Devaluation investopedia. Investopedia investopedia 3 reasons why countries devalue their currency. Under a fixed exchange rate system, devaluation and revaluation are official changes in the value of country's currency relative to other currencies. Reasons why countries devalue their currency devaluation wikipedia. A devaluation in the pound means 1 is worth less compared to other foreign currencies. Jan on 6th june, 1966 india, hit by drought after two major wars (with china and pakistan), devalued rupee a massive rate from rs. Under a how does the devaluation of currency affect economy country? How it effect exports and imports? What are its impacts on common men in dec 13, 2016 for reasons not entirely clear, discussions nightly news or business television delivered with an ominous tone may 29, 2017 refers to official lowering value country's definition financial dictionary by free online english encyclopedia. Economic effect of a devaluation the currency how do countries devalue currency? Quora. What is currency devaluation? Meaning of find out information about devaluation. Asp url? Q webcache. Currency devaluation financial definition of currency devaluationarticle about by the what china's means for world's trade deals. Devaluation definition & example what devaluation actually means the economist. A currency's devaluation is the result of a feb 12, 2013 opening paragraph bloomberg's news story on venezuela's currency move classic example what actually means there fall in value. Reasons why countries devalue their currency. Devaluation is a monetary policy tool used by countries that have fixed exchange rate or semi in modern policy, devaluation a
Views: 138 Etta Hahne Tipz
Barry Eichengreen | a History of the Great Moderation: Currency, Populism, and Credit
 
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Subscribe to Hidden Forces here: http://www.hiddenforces.io In Episode 54 of Hidden Forces, Demetri Kofinas speaks with economic historian Barry Eichengreen about his experience studying currency pegs and exchange rate mechanisms, as the two explore how the legacy of globalization, trade liberalization, and the great moderation laid the foundation for the challenges facing the modern economy. Barry Eichengreen has made a career of studying the history of money and the role that currency has played in the international order. Currency regimes are not fixed in stone. Our current system of floating exchange rates backed by the petrodollar has only been with for the last forty years. Before it, the Western world existed on the gold exchange rate mechanism of Bretton Woods, which lasted for less than thirty years, and whose dissolution lead to a period of high inflation and unemployment that challenged the economic models of the time and put the American economy and political establishment through a decade of frustration, uncertainty, and unrest. However, In the years after the stagflation of the 1970’s and the deregulation of the 1980’s, a period of moderation swept across the Western World. The cost of capital declined, as inflation steadied and markets rose. Developing economies hitched their wagons to the industrialized West, pegging their currencies to the US Dollar, which was seen as the coinage of a New World Order. The Euro project, once a gradual process of integration, was fast-tracked under Maastricht and the reunification of the German Reich. Communist China, humbled by the fall of the Soviet Union and motivated by the riots in Tiananmen Square, set itself down the path towards becoming the growth engine of a new sort of global economy. At the time, many adopted Francis Fukuyama’s phrase, “the End of History,” to describe this period of optimism in the establishment of a neoliberal world order that they hoped would last for the rest of time. Alas, the grand ambitions and lofty ideals of the Washington consensus proved premature. The rush of capital from Western countries into Eastern ones precipitated a series of financial crises beginning in Asia, and ending on the balance sheets of America’s legendary financial institutions, leading to a government-engineered bailout of the country’s investment banks. Eventually, the high-flying stock market of the late 90’s popped in spectacular fashion, and thus began a series of monetary countermeasures, rate cuts, and wealth effects that would lead, inexorably, towards the Great Financial Crisis, a watershed moment in the history of markets whose consequences we have yet to fully reckon with to this very day. Producer & Host: Demetri Kofinas Editor & Engineer: Stylianos Nicolaou Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hiddenforcespod/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/hiddenforcespod Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/hiddenforcespod/
Views: 843 Hidden Forces
Venezuela's Economic Problems
 
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From VOA Learning English, this is Economics. Venezuela is facing a number of economic problems. Inflation is putting pressure on many businesses. Rotzen Villabon owns a gift store. But his business needs American dollars to import products made in China. He is unable to exchange Venezuelan money for dollars at the official exchange rate of about 6.5 bolivares to the dollar. He says the supply of dollars is even limited on the black market, where dollars cost much more. He says that is why business at his store is down. Venezuela has the highest rate of inflation in South America. In February, Venezuela reduced the value of its currency by one third, which has made imports more costly. The economic troubles have resulted in shortages of products -- from necessities like food to beauty products. Venezuela is a major oil exporter. The nation's oil wealth paid for many social programs during the 14-year-rule of former president Hugo Chavez. But Venezuela's recent presidential election showed there are divisions in the country. Nicolas Maduro was declared the winner of a close election over opposition candidate Henrique Capriles on April 14th. Mr. Capriles disputed the vote and called for a recount. Henrique Capriles is a lawyer. He promised to open the economy to foreign investment. Nicolas Maduro is former union leader. He served as vice president to Mr. Chavez before the president died of cancer last month. Mr. Maduro promised to continue the social policies and programs of Mr. Chavez. For supporters, the election was about saving programs for free housing, health care and education. For VOA Learning English, I'm Carolyn Presutti.
Q&A Future of China's Exchange Rate Policy
 
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July 21, 2009 Morris Goldstein and Nicholas R. Lardy take audience questions at the release of their latest book, The Future of China's Exchange Rate Policy, at an event at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
Views: 97 PetersonInstitute
Master Stroke: "India has less unemployment rate than neighbouring countries"; here's real
 
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Master Stroke: "India has less unemployment rate than neighbouring countries"; here's reality check
Views: 8526 ABP NEWS
What Is The Gold Standard
 
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The Gold Standard Act of the United States was passed in 1900 (approved on March 14) and established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold). It was signed by President William McKinley. Gold standard the concise encyclopedia of economics. Used a gold standard from its inception in 1789 until 1971, stretch of 182 years. How it worked what is the gold standard? would a 2 jun 2017 understand standard history, including when u. What is the gold standard? 19 apr 2017 standard a monetary system where country's currency or paper money has value directly linked to gold, but since fallen out what 'gold standard'. Library of what was the gold standard? Thoughtcodefinition standard by merriam webster. How would it affect the economy? What is gold standard? It's a monetary system that definition of standard backing country's currency with its reserves. Went off the gold standard, and why. What is the gold standard? U. Gold standard history and facts the balancedefinition & what is a gold standard? Forbes. Went off the gold standard under president nixon in 1971. What is the gold standard? Gold standard wikipedia. What may not be widely known is that the classic gold standard u. What is a gold standard? Louis fedwhat. What this means is that the government would we are a standard and certification body works to ensure every dollar of climate development what if protecting also meant she could. The gold standard is a monetary system in which the representative currency based on fixed amount of held by central government ''6ervenec 20165 oct 2012 some have called for return to. What is the gold standard? Learn liberty youtube. What is gold standard? Definition and meaning businessdictionary what would a return to the standard mean? Openmarkets. Such currencies are freely convertible into gold at a fixed price, and the 23 oct 2012 u. What is the history of gold standard? . Gold standard can refer to several things, including a fixed monetary regime under which the monopoly government currency is gold system in economic unit of account based question was what type gold, silver or both 25 apr 2017 when country agrees redeem for its value. Gold standard definition, pros, cons, can we return? The balance. The gold standard is a system in which currency given country tied to specific amount of. National 26 mar 2017 learn what the gold standard was and how it differs from fiat system of money that's used today is. The gold standard explained in one minute youtube. The gold standard how does it work? Do we need it? Youtube. Gold standard, monetary system in which the standard unit of currency is a fixed quantity an international gold system, or that convertible into what distinguishes property law from other kinds 27 jan 2011 u. In 1965 not that long ago all major countries in the gold standard was a commitment by participating to fix prices of their domestic currencies terms specified amount.
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The Potential in Vietnamese Dong Investment
 
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Over 20 years, Vietnam has transformed remarkably. Despite being the dumping ground for dollar inflation and consistent devaluation of its own currency, the country has developed into an attractive investment opportunity because of its revolutionary economic reforms. By using the Confucian style tactic of economic warfare, Vietnam turned the economic policies deployed against it into the greater opportunities of economic development. Let’s have a look at how the devaluation of dong occurred and the potentials of its revaluation in coming years. Devaluation of the Dong After the American war of aggression, Vietnam faced trade embargo from the United States, which prevented the country from a reconstruction boom after the hostilities ended. What made it worse was when the U.S. put a ban on imports to Vietnam through economic sanctions which created a shortage of foreign capital required for reconstruction process, thus causing further economic deterioration. Moreover, the sanctions reduced the employment rate due to reduced industrial capacity. Additionally, a similar ban on exports limited Vietnam’s access to foreign capital markets, which could raise funds for industrial and macroeconomic infrastructure otherwise. Since exports to communist countries were considered a violation of the U.S. strategic interests, the embargo also blocked financial assistance from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). During this period, Vietnam started to export its cheap labor and natural resources to a handful of countries that stood against the U.S. embargo. Due to the low exchange rate, some countries couldn’t resist the lure of business opportunities in Vietnam and began investing its imports and exports. Just then, the United States used its power and influence within IMF to devalue dong even further while lifting the sanctions. The intent of this move was to keep the value of dong low, encouraging the use of the U.S. dollar rather than Vietnamese dong in the local market. Revaluation of Dong The dong has been pegged to the U.S. dollar for nearly 4 decades to facilitate the dumping of dollar inflation. Due to this reason, the dollar has been predominantly used by Vietnamese financial institutions, which prevented the dong from gaining its original value. However, this is going to change soon as the Vietnamese Business Forum has been exploring ways to stabilize the Vietnamese dong. The Macroeconomic Policy Working Group (MAG) has recently put forward suggestions to introduce a new foreign exchange policy which allows the revaluation of the dong in correlation with multiple foreign currencies. The foreign exchange reforms will not only stabilize the exchange rate, but will also bring a dramatic adjustment to the foreign currency markets. Besides, the World Bank is openly supporting the Vietnam’s policy group which further reinforces the revaluation of the Vietnamese dong. Those who are anticipating profits from investing in dong are likely to see an upside in coming years. If you haven’t invested in dong yet, get the best deals of dong from us today!
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L3/P6: WTO, Bali Package, Food subsidy issue, TFA
 
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Language: Hindi, Topics Covered: 1. General Agreement on Tariff and trade (GATT) and the origin of World Trade Organisation (WTO) 2. WTO: structure and functions 3. difference between tariff and nontariff barriers in international trade 4. major agreements under WTO. 5. SPS Agreement: Sanitary and phytosanitary measures, ban on Indian Alphonso and American poultry 6. Three types of subsidies: green box, Amber box and blue box- and provisions of WTO on them. 7. Agreement on agriculture –food subsidies quota on developed and developing countries. 8. WTO Bali summit and its 3 major outcomes 9. Peace clause: origin, purpose and features 10. Trade facilitation agreement (TFA)- origin, purpose, features, why did India refused to sign it initially? 11. Shanta Kumar FCI-PDS reform Angle to food subsidies Powerpoint available at http://Mrunal.org/download Exam-Utility: UPSC CSAT, CDS, CAPF, Bank, RBI, IBPS, SSC and other competitive exams, IIM, XLRI, MBA interviews and GDPI Venue: Sardar Patel Institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Satellite, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,India
Views: 198208 Mrunal Patel
Zoellick Says G-7 Should Have Flexible Exchange Rates
 
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Jan. 28 (Bloomberg) -- World Bank President Robert Zoellick talks about reserve currencies and exchange rates among the Group of Seven nations. He speaks with Francine Lacqua on Bloomberg Television's "The Pulse" from the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos, Switzerland.
Views: 148 Bloomberg

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