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Abbe's Refractometer - Amrita University
 
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▶ This video channel is developed by Amrita University's CREATE http://www.amrita.edu/create ▶ Subscribe @ https://www.youtube.com/user/amritacreate http://www.youtube.com/amritavlab ▶ Like us @ https://www.facebook.com/CREATEatAmrita ▶ For more Information @ http://vlab.amrita.edu/index.php?sub=1&brch=195&sim=545&cnt=1 ▶ Amrita Virtual Lab Project website http://vlab.amrita.edu Refraction is the change in the direction of a wave passing from one medium to another caused by its change in speed. Refraction occurs when light passes from one medium to a medium with different index of refraction. The Abbe refractometer is employed for determining the concentration of solutions, for purity tests and quality checks of liquid,plastic, and solid substances,and as an auxiliary instrument for investigating macromolecular substances. Abbé refractometer working principle is based on critical angle.
Views: 58252 Amrita Vlab
Refractive Index of a Liquid - MeitY OLabs
 
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This video channel is developed by Amrita University's CREATE http://www.amrita.edu/create ▶ For more Information @ http://amrita.olabs.edu.in/?sub=1&brch=6&sim=247&cnt=1 ▶ Amrita Online Lab Project website http://www.olabs.edu.in/ ▶ Subscribe @ https://www.youtube.com/user/amritacreate http://www.youtube.com/amritavlab ▶ Like us @ https://www.facebook.com/CREATEatAmrita Copyright © 2016 Amrita University Developed by Amrita University & CDAC Mumbai. Funded by MeitY (Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology) Refractive Index of a Liquid :- In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction 'n' of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. If 'i' is the angle of incidence of a ray in vacuum (angle between the incoming ray and the perpendicular to the surface of a medium, called the normal) and 'r' is the angle of refraction (angle between the ray in the medium and the normal), the refractive index 'n' is defined as the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction. This video explains how to determine the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens by parallax method.
Views: 56609 amritacreate
Ethanol ..... carbon & its compounds in hindi
 
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In this video I am discussing about Ethanol . Common names of Ethanol , Boiling point , melting point , Refractive Index , Reaction with sodium and with conc. Sulphuric Acid . Difference between Ethanol and Ethenol . For queries comment it orr mail us - [email protected] you !!!!!!!!
Views: 174 AMATEUR TUTORIAL
Alcohol determination by steam distillation
 
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According to law the alcohol content must be declared and labelled on alcoholic beverages. The purpose of the regulation is to provide pertinent information to the consumer. Therefore accurate alcohol determination is mandatory in quality control labs of the beverage industry as well as in governmental labs ensuring the law regulation. Our flexible KjelFlex K-360 allows for performing the classical nitrogen and protein determination according to Kjeldahl, and also the direct distillation of steam volatile compounds. http://www.buchi.com/en/products/kjeldahl-dumas/kjelflex-k-360
Views: 8103 buchilabequipment
Measuring Ethanol in the Classroom: Tricks & Tips
 
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This video is a tutorial designed to provide tips on how to take more accurate ethanol measurements and make more meaningful comparisons in a classroom lab setting. The video is especially useful for calibrating, measuring with, and troubleshooting ethanol probes for GLBRC labs like CB2E and Fermentation in a Bag.
Views: 1523 GLBioenergy
326 - P2 Liquid-Vapour Binary System Equilibrium
 
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0:07 Liquid-vapour binary system phase equilibrium 1:04 Unwrapped apparatus - showing how it works 2:15 Blackboard - schematic diagram of apparatus 3:26 Getting solvents 3:41 Apparatus setup 6:15 Heating the solvent 9:16 Reading refractive index 11:40 Generating calibration curve 12:43 Adding second solvent 14:41 Switching to pure solvent B 15:18 Cleanup and shutdown
Views: 3678 Chris Ambidge
The Refractive Index of Water
 
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To Measure the Refractive Index of Water using Real and Apparent Depths. A Leaving Certificate Physics Mandatory Experiment.
Views: 52402 c4science
Ethanol and Water Glitching at 400x (Higher Resolution)
 
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A different sort of beautiful. Nothing is moving, the camera is not re-focusing or adjusting its exposure - just differences of refractive index as two liquids mix.
Views: 18 Jonathan Saunders
Refractive index matching
 
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Demonstration of invisibility with refractive index matching
Views: 371 yourplasticpal
How to calculate the speed of light in a material of a known refractive index
 
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This video shows how to calculate the speed that light will travel at in a material with a known value of refractive index.
Views: 23433 physics.education
X Physics - Light - Relative and Absolute Refractive Index by Amrinder Sir
 
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Class X - Physics Unit 3 - Natural Phenomenon Light Relative and Absolute Refractive Index This Channel initiated by Dr. D. R. Vij (former Professor of Physics, Kurukshetra University, India) primarily aims at taking free education to the doorsteps of learners who for various economic and social factors can not avail benefits of regular coaching. In view of the congested classrooms coupled with hefty tuition fee, social taboos and hazards of travelling (for girls in particular) this mode of extending education had become a necessity. This self-learning approach is a definite step towards democratisation of education i.e. taking education even to individuals who staying in remote and far off areas were being deprived of education for no fault of theirs. Viewers are requested to click LIKE button if they like a video and SUBSCRIBE to this channel to get notifications of more video lessons being uploaded from time to time in future. They are also requested to SHARE videos with nears and dears who can be benefitted. All video lessons are systematically indexed on the website: www.gianmandir.com wherein one can register free of cost. All videos are also available through our “Gianmandir” APP which can be downloaded from Google Play Store. With thanks Dr. D. R. Vij Professor of Physics (Retd.) (Mob) +919416220316
Views: 99 Prof. D. R. Vij
Qualitative Analysis of Oil and Fats - MeitY OLabs
 
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This video channel is developed by Amrita University's CREATE http://www.amrita.edu/create ▶ For more Information @ http://amrita.olabs.co.in/?sub=73&brch=8&sim=210&cnt=1 ▶ Amrita Online Lab Project website http://www.olabs.edu.in/ ▶ Subscribe @ https://www.youtube.com/user/amritacreate http://www.youtube.com/amritavlab ▶ Like us @ https://www.facebook.com/CREATEatAmrita Copyright © 2016 Amrita University Developed by Amrita University & CDAC Mumbai. Funded by MeitY (Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology) Qualitative Analysis of Oil and Fats :- Fats and oils are concerted source of energy. Certain percentage of body weight of human being is fat and 20-35% of calories should come from fat. Fats in the diet are essential for good health and are needed for the growth of the body and the processing of vitamins. They make up part of all cells and help to maintain the body temperature. They form fatty tissue around delicate organs to protect them from injury.Chemically fats and oils are trimesters of glycerol and higher fatty acids. They are of animal or plant origin. Desi ghee is animal ghee while vanaspati ghee is vegetable ghee. Fats are solids whole oils are liquids at ordinary temperature. Fats and oils may be saturated or unsaturated. This video explains some simple tests of oils and fats.
Views: 29921 amritacreate
High vacuum distillation of  tetrachloroethane
 
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http://www.amir-asadirad.com Distillation of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane under vacuum Linear Formula: CHCl2CHCl2 Molecular Weight: 167.85 refractive index: n20/D 1.494 bp: 147 °C mp: −43 °C density: 1.586 g/mL at 25 °C
Views: 7921 axchem22
√√ Distillation of Ethanol and water | Energy | iitutor
 
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https://www.iitutor.com Motivation Ethanol and water are extremely soluble in one another. Ethanol is used heavily in industry. It can be produced renewably from fermentation at concentrations of 15% v/v. Must be separated from water in order to be used effectively. Method Set up equipment as shown. Place 100 mL of 20:80 ethanol/water mixture into distillation flask. Heat gently, temperature of water bath should be kept at . Collect 20 mL of distillate. Typical results Distillation will never achieve 100% purity. Strong hydrogen bonding forces some water out with the ethanol. Distillates with higher ethanol percentage will weigh less per mL. This is due to ethanol’s lower density.
Views: 5830 iitutor.com
Refraction (4 of 5) Calculating the Critical Angle
 
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Shows how to calculate the critical angle for total internal reflection. You can see a listing of all my videos at my website, http://www.stepbystepscience.com Also check out this great video from Nat and Friends to learn about fiber optic cable and how it is installed across the ocean floor. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9R4tznCNB0 Please support my channel by doing all of the following; (1) Subscribe, get all my excellent physics, chemistry and math videos. (2) Give me a thumbs up for this video. (3) Leave me a nice positive comment. (4) Sharing is Caring, share this video with all of your friends.
Views: 46691 Step-by-Step Science
Office Tutorials - Determining the Concentration of an Unknown Sample (Microsoft Excel 2010)
 
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In this tutorial I show you how to (again) generate a standard curve, and use that standard curve to determine the concentration of an unknown solution (assuming that we are able to obtain its absorbance). I perform this tutorial in Excel 2010 on Windows 7. For more office tutorials on multiple operating systems and in different programs, visit my website: http://iws.collin.edu/mgarcia/Office/
Views: 284135 Mark Garcia
REFRACTION OF LIGHT THROUGH GLASS PRIZM.
 
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I have discussed here the concept of refraction. Refraction of light through rectangular glass slab and refraction of light through glass prizm. The concept is discussed in a very simple and easy manner .A must watch video for the students of class x.
Views: 3924 sangeeta khatri
Refractrometer
 
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A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law while for mixtures, the index of refraction can be calculated from the composition of the material using several mixing rules such as the Gladstone–Dale relation and Lorentz–Lorenz equation. In drug diagnostics, a refractometer is used to measure the specific gravity of human urine. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 30 Microhub Plus
Experiment 19 To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror
 
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Section A - 1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current (Ohm's Law) - http://bit.ly/CBSE-OhmsLaw - 2. To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Series-Parallel - 3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a meter bridge. :-http://bit.ly/CBSE-Parallel-Series - 5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Compare-EMF - 6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Internal-Resistance - 7. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Half-Deflection - 8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same. http://bit.ly/CBSE-Galvanometer - 9. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same. http://bit.ly/CBSE-Galvanometer - 10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-ACMains Section B :- - 1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Focal-Concave - 2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. :- http://bit.ly/Focal-ConvexLens - 3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Concave-Lens - 4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. - http://bit.ly/CBSE-Concave-Lens - 5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-MinDaviation - 6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.- http://bit.ly/CBSE-Travelling-Microscope - 7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using Concave mirror. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-liquid - -To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.http://bit.ly/CBSE-Liquid-Plane-Mirro - 8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias. :- http://bit.ly/CBSE-pn-junction - 9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. - http://bit.ly/CBSE-Zener-Diode - 10. To study the characteristic of a common - emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage - http://bit.ly/CBSE-NPN
Views: 10182 Practical Experiments
High vacuum distillation of Diglyme (Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether)
 
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http://www.amir-asadirad.com Distillation of diglyme under reduced pressure. Diglyme: (CH3OCH2CH2)2O Molecular Weight: 134.17 bp:162 °C(lit.) ; refractive index: n20/D 1.408(lit.) mp: −64 °C(lit.) density: 0.943 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Views: 12139 axchem22
Density Measurement with balances
 
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Using the Density Kit and the built-in application, your balance can be easily converted into the perfect densitometer in a few simple steps. The optional kit allows density determination of porous and viscous substances as well as solids and liquids. The balance application guides you step-by-step through the whole process. It collects the density values, calculates the results and even allows statistical evaluation of the measurement series if required. Your results can either be transferred to a computer or printed out. Density determination solutions from METTLER TOLEDO: https://www.mt.com/us/en/home/products/Laboratory_Weighing_Solutions/Accessories/Density.html?cmp=smo_GLO_YT_LAB_OTH_Youtube_LAB_ Density and Refractive Index determination: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=000Am5B_q0o
Contaminated cell culture
 
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This video shows how to discriminate our major enemies and cells based on their refractive index. The digital staining panel is the same for all the samples: yeast, bacteria and contaminated cell culture.
Peak Purity By HPLC-PDA Detector
 
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Basic principles of evaluating peak purity by HPLC Photo Diode Array Detector.
Views: 1576 Dr Arvind Mittal
Simple Refraction and  Snells Law Problem
 
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In this video, I solve a problem that involves a ray of light that is incident upon an interface between air and ethanol.
Views: 527 James Love
Disappearing Glass Experiment
 
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Jeff Stevenson, from Imagination Station, shows how to make a glass rod disappear using refraction.
Views: 9718 ISTscience
Properties of Ethanol: Reaction with Sodium
 
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CBSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds. To perform this activity on your phone by yourself, download Spark Learning App for free https://goo.gl/Rj6iRg. Properties of the commercially important compound – ethanol (alcohol). The reaction of ethanol with sodium is demonstrated. Subscribe to LabInApp channel https://goo.gl/4ATV5N
Views: 88 LabInApp
Hanna HI 96801 Digital Refractometer Colorimetry Refractometry for Brix Sugar Analysis in Foods
 
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Get from Amazon http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B002NX0WHI/?tag=movitraifilmi-21 Accurately report the sugar content of aqueous food solutions as % Brix with the HI96801 Digital Refractometer. Simple two button operation and 1.5 second response time make this digital refractometer the obvious choice for measuring the concentration of Brix in foods. The sealed flint glass prism and stainless steel well are easy to clean and all readings are temperature compensated. The HI96801 portable refractometer converts the refractive index of a food sample to % brix. This conversion is based on the tables found in the ICUMSA Methods Book (International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis) that documents the changes in refractive index with temperature for a percent by weight sucrose solution. The HI96801 is ideal for the analysis of fruits, energy drinks, puddings, soy milk, juices, jam, marmalade, honey, soups, jelly, tofu and condiments. The HI96801 is an easy to use tool for measuring sugar in food samples in the field or in the lab. Designed for food sugar analysis Temperature Compensation algorithms based on sucrose solution 0 to 85% brix range with an accuracy of ± 0.2% Sample size as small as 2 metric drops (100 µl) Sealed stainless steel well with high-grade optical prism made of flint glass Great for any sized food laboratory. more info at www.hannainst.com
Views: 120 Unpack Guy
RRF calculation and sample analysis
 
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In one of the previous videos the new method “Ethanol as internal standard” for direct determination of volatiles in spirit drinks was presented. It was theoretically explained and compared with traditional methods. And particularly in this video we’re going to pay more attention to RRF calculations for each individual compound and what is more, we shall look how to use these values in order to analyze the unknown sample by method “Ethanol as internal standard”.
Views: 1709 Ethanol - IS
To Determine SURFACE TENSION of given Liquid | Experiment | By CBR
 
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#surface #tension #ipupracticles #cbr For more information or queries  Comment below. G-mail: [email protected] Website: www.CBReviews77.wix.com/CBR Like us on Facebook: CBR (Name of page) Twitter: CBReviews (name of Account ) For more updates Subscribe our Channel. Stay tuned  Thanks for watching.
Views: 35528 C B R
Thin film measurement using MP-SPR Navi 200 OTSO
 
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See how to measure thickness and refractive index of thin inorganic layers using multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance. Unlike in ellipsometry, the measured light does not travel through the sample, but from the back. Hence, there is no disturbance from the sample. Thin metal films from 3.7 Ångströms up to 100 nanometers thick can be measured. Transparent films can be measured up tens of micrometers in thickness. Besides thickness and refractive index, MP-SPR measures also interactions with different gas or liquid samples, including ethanol or toluene vapors, solvents, but also plasma and serum. This allows real-time measurement of antifouling capabilities of thin film coatings as well as measurements of biocompatibility. Real-time conformation changes can be measured for instance upon change of temperature, pH, electric potential or light trigger. 200 OTSO is a semi-automated MP-SPR instrument with 2-channel fluidics. It can be combined with different techniques including electrochemistry and fluorescence. 200 OTSO can be equipped with up to 4 wavelengths in the same channel, allowing reliable measurement of thickness, refractive index and dn/dl. 200 OTSO is designed and manufactured in Finland. Its name "otso" comes from vast Finnish forests and means a bear. Put yourself in the shoes of a scientist with our GoPro movie.
Views: 101 MsBioNavis
Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
 
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Saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds are two kinds of compounds which are differentiated based on the number of bonds between the atoms. Saturated compounds are those chemical compounds which have single bonds i.e. there are single bonds between two carbon atoms. On the other hand, unsaturated compounds are those which have double or triple bonds between two carbon atoms. Saturated carbon compounds are less reactive and thus, more stable than the unsaturated compounds. An example of saturated carbon compound is Ethane. On the contrary, unsturated compounds are more reactive and an example of it is Ethene. To learn more about saturated and unsaturated compounds with reactions and structures, refer to this article- https://byjus.com/chemistry/carbon-compounds/
Views: 10951 BYJU'S
Inside a kettle (Hele-Shaw cell heated from below)
 
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Video for the APS-DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012 #83753 "Inside a kettle," authored by S. Wildeman, H. Lhuissier, C. Sun, D. Lohse (Submitted on 13 Oct 2012) http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.3693 "This fluid dynamics video images the different heat transport mechanisms at play when a liquid confined in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell is heated from below. The two-dimensional time resolved temperature field inside the cell is measured by a quantitative Schlieren technique which is detailed in the video." "When a liquid in a container is heated from below and cooled from the top a heat flux settles through the liquid. As the temperature of the bottom plate increases, the heat transport is successively dominated by different mechanisms: conduction, convection and boiling. To study this, experiments with a Hele-Shaw cell were undertaken. Instantaneous non-intrusive measurements of the two-dimensional temperature field are performed in the cell. The video presents these measurements in combination with Schlieren visualizations of the flow to illustrate the dierent heat transport mechanisms and the transitions between them. The cell is made of two thin vertical glass slides (50 mm in width and 25 mm in height) separated by a 1 mm gap. The bottom of the cell is made of a thin heat-conducting plate. The top is open. The movie begins when a cell filled with ethanol at ambient temperature is put on top of a hot copper block. In order to visualize the temperature evolution inside the cell a screen patterned with a regular cross-ruling is put behind the cell. As the liquid in the cell warms up, the cross-ruling, as seen through the cell, looks distorted. The temperature differences in the cell plane give rise to index of refraction gradients. This bends the light rays, resulting in a distorted image of the cross-ruling. Because the index of refraction-temperature relationship and the distance to the screen are known, measurements of the distortion can be used to calculate the temperature gradients in the cell. By integrating those gradients, this technique provides the temperature field inside the cell with a time resolution that is only limited by the camera frame rate (here 500 frames per second). This is used in the video to illustrate the different heat transport mechanisms at play as the liquid inside the cell is heated from below to progressively higher temperatures. One successively observes the temperature fields for: (1) two-dimensional convection motions with light, hot plumes rising between falling heavy, cold ones, (2) nucleate boiling of vapor bubbles on the bottom plate as the ethanol boiling temperature is exceeded, (3) and the `boiling crisis', i.e. the transition to the lm boiling regime where the bottom plate is covered by a vapor lm which periodically destabilizes by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability."
Views: 12915 Francis Villatoro
buy gbl online
 
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buy gbl online Mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.buygblonline.org Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) 4 - Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone Son: 86.0900 The CAS number: 96-48-0 Beilstein number: 105248 Don't name: gamma butyrolactone; 1, 4 - butyl ester; Gamma - butyric acid lactone; Gamma hydroxybutyrate lactone; Two hydrogen - 2 (3 h) - ketone of furan; Gamma - butyl ester; 4 - hydroxy butyric acid lactone; Gamma butyrolactone (GBL); 1 - Oxacyclopentan - 2 - one; 2 (3 h) - dihydrofuranone; 2 (3 h) - Furanone, dihydro -; 2 (3 h) - furanone, dihydro -; 2, 5-tetrafluorobenzoic tetrahydro - 2 - furanone; 2 - Oxolanone; 2 - Oxotetrahydrofuran; 3 - Hydroxybutyric acid lactone Molecular formula: C4H6O2 Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) - (4 - Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone) for detailed information The chemical and physical properties: the density: 1.1286, melting point: 43.53 ℃, boiling point: 204 ℃, refractive index: 1.4348, flash point: 98 ℃, non-toxic transparent oily liquid, and water can completely miscibility, soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, benzene and acetone, can dissolve many organic and inorganic compounds. In the thermal decomposition in alkaline solution. Is a kind of high boiling point, strong solubility, performance and stability, good solvent. Safe and easy to use. Fragrant smell. Has the water absorbability. Along with the water vapor volatile. Basic purpose: gas chromatographic stationary liquid (the highest temperature 30 ℃, solvent of methanol), separation and analysis of all kinds of hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds, permanent gases. Important organic synthetic raw material and good solvent. The product can be used to make a - pyrrolidone, N - methyl pyrrolidone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, is also the ideal antioxidant, plasticizer, extraction solvent, absorbing agent, dispersing agent, fixing agent, curing agent; In the pharmaceutical industry can be used as an anesthetic and sedative, ciprofloxacin can synthesize and interferon, etc. Is vitamin intermediates, ring and so on; In terms of agroforestry also has a wide range of USES, is the production of plant growth agent, pesticides and other intermediate. In addition, still can be used as a battery, capacitor production, been couplers, etc. Packing method: The quality information: Project analysis of pure AR Content assay, % 99.00 or higher Density, 20 g/ml, 1.125 to 1.128 Burning residue is eligible Qualified water solubility experiment Refractive index N20D 1.435 to 1.437
Views: 176 Buygbl Cleaners
Hanna Lab - Learn About the Hanna Instruments Brix, Oechsle, and KMW Refractometer HI96814
 
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http://hubs.ly/H07VY730 The HI96814 is a rugged, portable digital refractometer designed for sugar (% Brix, °Oe and °KMW) measurement of wine, juice and must. The HI96814 has a high accuracy of ±0.2% Brix, ± 1 °Oe and ±0.2 °KMW. All readings are automatically compensated for temperature variations according to the ICUMSA Methods Book standard and displayed with a 1.5 second response time. The sealed flint glass prism and stainless steel well are easy to clean. Just wipe with a soft cloth in preparation for the next sample.
Dyeing The Dead - EP 1: About Diaphonizing & Things We Need!
 
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Welcome to my new YouTube Series Called “Dyeing The Dead”!!! :D Hash tag it, #DyeingTheDead WATCH ME IN HD!! IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE LEAVE THEM IN THE COMMENTS!!! This video is going to be talking about what Diaphonization is and how to do the process! I will go through all the necessary chemicals and supplies that you will need in order to start this process. THIS IS MY FIRST TIME DOING THIS SO I'M REALLY EXCITED TO SHARE THIS WITH EVERYONE!! First, let me introduce myself. I am Kelly (or TacoKel). Last year (2014) I graduated with my Bachelors in Biomedical Sciences with a minor in Chemistry I was able to become a Plastinate Apprentice in one of the labs where I learned the process of Plastination on a small scale. Plastination is the process or preserving specimens using liquid silicone. I graduated before we ever got to try to diaphonize in that lab, so that is why I am now doing this at home! Diaphonization is also known as “Clearing and Staining.” This was further developed by two scientists by the names of Dingerkus (I messed up his name in my video) and Uhler in 1977, who introduced the Trypsin digestion!!. At the end of the entire process the specimens are stored in glycerin, making them look see -through. The specimens aren’t actually see-through, this is an optical illusion! While clearing, Trypsin digests everything but the collagen, which holds the specimen together. Collagen has the same index of refraction as glycerin, so when put in glycerin it becomes “transparent”! **WHAT I’M NOT GOING TO BE FILMING** I will not be filming the process of Fixing/Preserving the specimen. Fixing a specimen can take a few days, depending on the size of the specimen. This you can do on your own!! **I FIXED MY SPECIMENS FIRST BEFORE I REMOVED THE ORGANS. I have a video that talks about “Preparing Your Specimen” where I removed the organs from the specimens I fixed already. Listed below are the steps to fixing your specimen. STEPS TO FIX YOUR SPECIMEN: -If your specimen of frozen, you first need to let it thaw to room temperature. -Skin the specimen (if it has fur), remove the scales for fish. Removing the fur BEFORE you place your specimen in formalin makes the process A LOT EASIER. -Make a formalin solution (for small specimens, 100mL will suffice). Make a 70:30 mix using 70 mL of Formalin and 30 mL of Water. *Wear goggles to prevent any from splashing in your eyes.* -Place the specimen in the formalin solution for a few days (2 or 3 for small specimens like mice, it make take longer depending on the specimen size). Specimens can be stored in Formalin for year. Just make sure that you have your specimen in a SEALED jar. LIST OF ITEMS/CHEMICALS NEEDED (With LINKS!!!!!!!!!) : 1. Specimen(s) - Mice 2. *10% Formalin Buffered 3. *Glacial Acetic Acid 99% - http://www.ebay.com/itm/Acetic-Acid-Glacial-99-Gallon-/111080995676?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item19dcf17b5c 4. *95% ETOH (Ethanol/Ethyl Alcohol) - http://www.ebay.com/itm/NC-0028-Ethyl-Alcohol-1-gal-Denatured-Tech-Grade-Solvent-/281371565489?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item41830d5db1 5. *Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001EDK0WK/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1 6. *Sodium Borate (Borax) 7. *Hydrogen Peroxide 8. Distilled/Deionized Water 9. *Thymol Crystals - http://www.ebay.com/itm/Thymol-Crystals-High-Purity-Aroma-Compound-25g-/111477935642?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item19f49a4e1a 10. *Glycerin – Local Store 11. *Trypsin - (LOOK FOR TRYPSIN 1:100 25 g POWDER) http://www.emsdiasum.com/microscopy/products/chemicals/tannic.aspx#22200 12. *Alizarin Red S (powder) - http://www.seedsit.com/alizarinredsmonohydratepowderbsccertified25grams.aspx 13. *Alcian Blue (powder) - http://www.seedsit.com/alcianblue8gxpowderbsccertified5grams.aspx 14. Lab Goggles 15. Lab Gloves 16. Surgical Kit/Dissection Kit - http://www.ebay.com/itm/Minor-Surgery-Set-18-Pieces-Surgical-Instruments-kit-Stainless-Steel-/131439836515 17. Plates/Dissection Tray 18. Graduated Cylinders - http://www.ebay.com/itm/Graduated-Cylinder-Borosilicate-Glass-Round-Base-Lab-Zap-Set-of-5-/231199344375?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item35d48e06f7 19. Glass Jars/Containers 20. Pocket Scale **I would like to give a shoutout to Ross Exton! He is the Live Video Producer for the At-Bristol Science Centre! He was able to give me so amazing advice on some things concerning the internet and how people would react. He has a twitter: https://twitter.com/rossexton CHECK OUT the At-Bristol Science Centre Channel https://www.youtube.com/user/atbristol LINKS ABOUT DIAPHONIZATION: Clearing and Staining Method http://cypriniformes.org/cln_sta_methods.html http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/dyeing-the-dead-the-artful-science-of-diaphonization http://mklod.com/2014/11/21/11/ THUMB UP and SUBSCRIBE!!! MY LINKS Facebook: http://www.facebok.com/TacoKel Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TacoKel Instagram: @TacoKel
Views: 12544 TacoKel
Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles: Production & Quality Control
 
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This video outlines the process of creating the U.S. ethanol production co-product, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and the critical control points that impact its quality and value.
Views: 17335 U.S. Grains Council
Science Chart gallery Dt 16 Dec the 2017 part 31
 
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Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction. Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris. Metals and non metals: Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention. Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents. Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties. Unit II: World of Living Life processes: "living being". Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination: animal hormones. Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women's health. Heredity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel's contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution. Unit III: Natural Phenomenon Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification. Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens. Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life. Unit IV: Effects of Current Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm's law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R. Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming's Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits. Unit V: Natural Resources Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources. Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances. Management of natural resources: Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
gbl synthesis
 
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gbl synthesis Mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.buygblonline.org gbl synthesis gbl synthesis Model: gamma butyrolactone manufacturer (origin) : dongguan product levels: top grade product Content of p: density of 99.9 (%) : 2.98 (g/cm3) quality standard: gb Packing specification: 200 kg/barrels of CAS: 99-172 product name: gamma butyrolactone Ng Martin lactone 1, 4 butyrolactone ng Martin lactone price ng Martin lactone manufacturer ng Martin lactone factory ng Martin lactone wholesale ng Martin lactone lowest price ng Martin lactone manufacturers selling ng Martin lactone parameters Martin lactone product safety manual Martin lactone using method Martin lactone purposes Martin lactone formula Martin lactone dosage Gamma butyrolactone gbl synthesis Chemical name: 1, 4 - butyrolactone, gamma butyrolactone, gamma hydroxybutyrate lactone CAS NO. : 96-48-0 Product physical properties: Molecular formula: C4H6O2 Molecular weight: 86.09 Molecular formula: Density (D420) g/ml: 1.125 ~ 1.135 Melting point: - 44 ℃ Boiling point: 206 ℃ Flash: gbl synthesis Light temperature: 99.2 ℃ 455 ℃ Refractive index: nD20 1.434 ~ 1.440 Properties: Colorless, transparent, smells like acetone oily liquid, with water, acetone, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol mixed solution and the thermal decomposition in lye, fragrant smell. Product specifications: Gamma butyrolactone specifications (perform enterprise standards: Q / 1400 McX001-2009) : project Optimal level Detection method appearance Colorless transparent liquid Visual observation The purity % 99.90 or higher Gas chromatography Moisture % 0.050 or less Carl fe method ' Colour APHA 15 or less Colorimetric method Density (D420) g/ml 1.125-1.135 The proportion of law The refractive index (nD20) 1.434-1.440 Spectrophotometric method gbl synthesis Product use: (1), mainly used in the manufacture of a - pyrrolidone, N - methyl pyrrolidone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, acetyl gamma butyrolactone and other products; (2), in the pharmaceutical industry is vitamin intermediates, ring and so on; (3), in the aspect of agroforestry also has a wide range of USES, is the production of plant growth agent, pesticides and other intermediate. (4), can be used as an antioxidant, plasticizer, extraction solvent, absorbing agent, dispersing agent, fixing agent, curing agent; (5), can be used as a battery, the production of capacitor, been couplers, etc. Storage methods: Stored in a cool and ventilated inside storeroom, away from fire and heat source. When handling, light light discharge, keep the packing intact, prevent leakage loss.
Views: 727 Buygbl Cleaners
Detection of CARBOHYDRATES, STARCH, FATS & PROTEINS Experiment Edunovus Online Smart Practicals
 
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Detection of Carbohydrates, Starch, Fats and Proteins in the given food compound. Check out more video on: http://www.edunovusonline.com Subscribe us on YT : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3DpOXGFQISBnEwaf0AejZw Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Edunovus-Online-1684890518448115/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Edunovusonline Mail us at : [email protected] Edunovus Online - Learning Made Easy Copyright © Edunovus Online. All rights reserved.
Views: 32309 Edunovus Online
0_111.Albatross
 
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Chemical formula C3H6O Molar mass 58.08 g·mol−1 Appearance colorless liquid Odor pungent, irritating, floral Density 0.7845 g cm−3 (25 °C) Melting point −94.7 °C (−138.5 °F; 178.5 K)[9] Boiling point 56.05 °C (132.89 °F; 329.20 K)[9] Solubility in water miscible Solubility miscible in benzene, diethyl ether, methanol, chloroform, ethanol log P −0.042 Vapor pressure 9.39 kPa (0 °C) 30.6 kPa (25 °C) 374 kPa (100 °C) 2.8 MPa (200 °C) Acidity (pKa) 19.2 Basicity (pKb) −5.2 (for conjugate base) Magnetic susceptibility (χ) -33.78·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index (nD) 1.3588 (VD=54.46) Viscosity 0.295 mPa·s (25 °C)
Views: 316 e
What is kalomal (रसकपूर) ? Solve this problem
 
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Mercury(I) chloride Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2. Also known as the mineral calomel[3] (a rare mineral) or mercurous chloride, this dense white or yellowish-white, odorless solid is the principal example of a mercury(I) compound. It is a component of reference electrodes in electrochemistry.[4][5] Mercury(I) chlorideNamesIUPAC name Dimercury dichloride Other names Mercurous chloride Calomel Identifiers CAS Number 10112-91-1  3D model (JSmol) Interactive image ChEBI CHEBI:33050  ChemSpider 16740467  ECHA InfoCard100.030.266EC Number233-307-5 PubChem CID 24956 RTECS numberOV8750000UNII J2D46N657D  UN number3077 InChI InChI=1S/2ClH.2Hg/h2*1H;;/q;;2*+1/p-2  Key: ZOMNIUBKTOKEHS-UHFFFAOYSA-L  SMILES Cl[Hg][Hg]Cl Properties Chemical formula Hg2Cl2Molar mass472.09 g/molAppearanceWhite solidDensity7.150 g/cm3Melting point525 °C (977 °F; 798 K) (triple point)Boiling point383 °C (721 °F; 656 K) (sublimes) Solubility in water 0.2 mg/100 mLSolubilityinsoluble in ethanol, ether Magnetic susceptibility (χ) −26.0·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index (nD) 1.973HazardsSafety data sheetICSC 0984 EU classification(DSD) (outdated) Harmful (Xn) Dangerous for the environment (N)R-phrases (outdated)R22, R36/37/38, R50/53S-phrases (outdated)(S2), S13, S24/25, S46, S60, S61NFPA 704  0 3 0 Flash pointNon-flammableLethal dose or concentration (LD, LC): LD50 (median dose) 210 mg/kg (rat, oral)[1]Thermochemistry Std molar entropy (So298) 196 J·mol−1·K−1[2] Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298) −265 kJ·mol−1[2]Related compounds Other anions Mercury(I) fluoride Mercury(I) bromide Mercury(I) iodide Other cations Mercury(II) chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
HPLC Instrumentation 23 - Variable UV Detector
 
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This video shows a variable UV detector in operation.
Views: 5225 Ardent Scientific
Chemistry Carbon & Compounds part 6 (Allotropes of carbons) CBSE class 10 X
 
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Chemistry Carbon & Compounds part 6 (Allotropes of carbons) CBSE class 10 X
Views: 83875 ExamFear Education
Brownian Motion in an Optical Trap (Medium NA)
 
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This video shows a spherical particle (glass, refractive index: np = 1.50) in water (nm = 1.33) subject to Brownian motion and to the optical force produced by a Gaussian beam focused by an objective with intermediate-high numerical aperture (NA= 1.0). In order to be able to see the effect of Brownian motion, the power of the beam was set equal to 1mW. The black arrow shown indicates the direction of the optical force on the particle (propely rescaled). Agnese Callegari, Mite Mijalkov, A. Burak Gököz, and Giovanni Volpe, "Computational toolbox for optical tweezers in geometrical optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, B11-B19 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.32.000B11 http://opticaltweezers.org
Views: 210 Soft Matter Lab
X Physics - Sources of Energy - Biomass and Biogas by Amrinder Sir
 
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Class X - Physics Unit 5 - Natural Resources Chapter 1 - Sources of Energy Biomass and Biogas This Channel initiated by Dr. D. R. Vij (former Professor of Physics, Kurukshetra University, India) primarily aims at taking free education to the doorsteps of learners who for various economic and social factors can not avail benefits of regular coaching. In view of the congested classrooms coupled with hefty tuition fee, social taboos and hazards of travelling (for girls in particular) this mode of extending education had become a necessity. This self-learning approach is a definite step towards democratisation of education i.e. taking education even to individuals who staying in remote and far off areas were being deprived of education for no fault of theirs. Viewers are requested to click LIKE button if they like a video and SUBSCRIBE to this channel to get notifications of more video lessons being uploaded from time to time in future. They are also requested to SHARE videos with nears and dears who can be benefitted. All video lessons are systematically indexed on the website: www.gianmandir.com wherein one can register free of cost. All videos are also available through our “Gianmandir” APP which can be downloaded from Google Play Store. With thanks Dr. D. R. Vij Professor of Physics (Retd.) (Mob) +919416220316
Views: 369 Prof. D. R. Vij
Science Chart gallery Dt 16 Dec 2017 part 28
 
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Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction. Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris. Metals and non metals: Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention. Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents. Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties. Unit II: World of Living Life processes: "living being". Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals : nervous system; voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, chemical co-ordination: animal hormones. Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women's health. Heredity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel's contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution. Unit III: Natural Phenomenon Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification. Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens. Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life. Unit IV: Effects of Current Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm's law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R. Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming's Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits. Unit V: Natural Resources Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources. Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances. Management of natural resources: Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Pure Ratios - An Introduction
 
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Welcome to Pure Ratios! This video is an introduction to the company that is dedicated to providing personalized medicine to holistically balance patients through accurate dosing. Pure Ratios provides healing through four different categories: Increasing Wellness, Lifestyle Exploration, Optimizing Performance and Managing Prevention. Subscribe now to our channel for our educational series! ************************************************* Pure Ratios provides an educational series that delivers valuable information about the Cannabis plant and the powerful impact it has on our body and society. They are on a mission to heal, engage, and educate. Pure Ratios is committed to bridging the gap between Eastern natural medicines and Western scientific developments through CBD-based products that are supported by both natural medicine techniques and extensive scientific research. Pure Ratios – Empowering a Well-Balanced Life SHOP NOW and visit our website! http://pureratios.com https://www.pureratioscbd.com ********************************************** Follow Pure Ratios: https://www.facebook.com/PureRatios/ https://www.facebook.com/PureRatiosCBD/ https://www.instagram.com/pureratios/ https://www.instagram.com/pureratioscbd/ For more information contact: [email protected] ********************************************** Host: Chad Conner Co-Founder & VP of Pure Ratios Conner has a Master of Science in Oriental Medicine and is a Licensed Acupuncturist. As a natural therapeutic practitioner for 20 years, Conner has extensive knowledge of how the body works and how to create balance. With his comprehensive study of the combination of Chinese superior herbs, Conner and his father teamed up to create products using whole plants and avoided synthetic compounds in pharmacological formulations. His mission is to teach holistic practitioners how to provide effective cannabis medicine to their patients by respecting the true nature of the plant.
Views: 157 Pure Ratios
Hemi cylindrical prism for surface plasmon resonance SPR setup - sales@dmphotonics.com
 
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Hemi cylindrical prism for surface plasmon resonance SPR setup - [email protected] Request a quote at [email protected] Featured research: Experimental setup to excite and detect SPR. A light of He – Ne laser with p polarization is incident in a hemicylindrical BK7 prism, which is mounted on a rotatory stage, and is reflected towards an optical photodetector mounted in a second rotatory stage. The photodetector signal and motion control are driven by the custom data acquisition. The signal is recorded and analyzed by a computer with Labview software. The refractive index is an important optical parameter of samples, which can be defined in terms of real and imaginary parts. The imaginary part is equal to the extinction coefficient, which means there is energy loss per unit in a certain direction caused by absorption and scattering. The refractive index of nonabsorbing or weakly absorbing liquids is relatively easy to measure by means of refraction [1], but when the liquid samples are absorbed, the difficulty in finding the complex refractive index increases. Different optical techniques have been applied in studying absorbing liquids; including reflection measurement [2], total internal reflection, and Brewster angle measurements [3]. But, as absorption increases, the use of these techniques becomes more and more complicated and inaccurate. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an effective research method that determines the refractive index (both real and imaginary) of samples in the solid [4,5], rough surface [6], gas [7], and liquid forms. In the fields of SPR, some work has been done to determine the complex refractive index of absorbing liquids; including some theoretical models to determine the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index [8,9] to enhance absorption-sensitivity using a multilayer system [10], as well as to measure the refractive index for biomolecular sensing purposes [11 – 13]. Most of these methods found a total value of the complex refractive index to describe or identify the absorbing samples, which are difficult to describe. In this paper we used parameters, such as the width and position of the SPR produced by the influence of the complex refractive index obtained through the SPR technique that was used to determine the quality or adulteration of tequila beverages. The high sensitivity of the method is due to the resonant dependence of the parameters on a laser beam reflected from a metal surface and on the refractive index changes of an adjacent medium. The shift of a resonant angle, corresponding to the intensity minimum of the reflected beam, is used as an information parameter. Recently, some techniques have been applied to analyzing tequila beverages. These include gas chromatography [14], spectrometry [15], and chemi- luminescence [16] to monitor the concentration of regulated compounds (ethanol, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, furfural, and metal contents, among others) that are related to the flavor constituents Raman spectroscopy to measure its alcoholic content [17], and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) absorption spectroscopy [18] to discriminate between tequila beverages. All of these techniques give important information about the constituents or other characteristics of tequila, but on the other hand, require many samples or are either too expen- sive or complicated. In the present research, we stu- died the SPR in the vicinity of the absorption band of different types of tequilas, measuring reflectivity as a function of two parameters: width and resonant angle. From the reflectivity distribution on these parameters, we find it is possible to differentiate tequilas, since the SPR curve is mainly determined by the tequila sample under examination. One hundred percent pure agave tequila, in its three presentations, white, aged, and extra-aged [19], was employed as the sample for this study. We used samples of bottled tequilas from four well-known trademarks: Tequila Herrradura (He), Tequila Centenario (Ce), Tequila Cazadores (Ca), and Tequila Don Julio (DJ), in the three presentations of white (Herradura Blanco, HB; Cazadores Blanco, CB, Centenario Blanco, CEB and Don Julio Blanco, DJB), aged (Herradura Reposado, HR, Cazadores reposado, CR; Centenario Reposado, CER; and Don Julio Reposado, DJR), and extra-aged (Herradura Añejo, HA; Cazadores Añejo, CA; Centenario Añejo, CEA; and Don Julio Añejo, DJA) tequilas with alcohol contents from 35% to 46%. These were chosen because of their importance to the local economy, with considerable sales profits due to the fact that they are some of the most consumed alcoholic beverages. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Experimental-setup-to-excite-and-detect-SPR-A-light-of-He-Ne-laser-with-p-polarization_fig1_230615543
Views: 59 delmarphotonics

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